• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/26

Click to flip

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Another name for protein synthesis.
Translation
What are the three main stages of translation?
1.) Initiation
2.) Elongation
3.) Termination
Translation begins at the _______, which puts the ribosome in the proper _______.
initiation codon
reading frame
What is the initiation codon sequence?
AUG
Initiation requires proteins called _______.
initiation factors (IFs)
What is the Shine-Dalgarno sequence?
In mRNAs:

5' AGGAGG 3'
What is the Kozack sequence?
ACCAUGG
In bacterial cells, the _______ guides the small ribosomal unit to the correct initiation codon.
Shine-Dalgarno sequence
In eukaryotes, the _______ recognizes the 5' end of the message and finds the first AUG triplet by scanning.
smallest ribosomal subunit
AUG codes for _______, so it is always the first amino acid to be incorporated into the polypeptide chain.
Methionine
How many types of methionyl-tRNAs are there?
2: one for initiation and one for residues on the polypeptide.
After the initiator tRNA is bound, the _______ of the ribosome joins the complex.
large subunit
How many sites are there on a ribosome for tRNA?
3:
P(peptidyl) site
A (aminoacyl) site
E (exit) site
The _______ cycle is the process of adding each subsequent amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain.
Elongation
_______ catalyzes the bond formation between amino acids.
Peptidyl Transferase
In bacteria, the ribosome moves 3 nucleotides along the mRNA in the _______ direction during _______.
5' -> 3'

translocation
Translocation is driven by conformational changes in an _______.
Elongation factor (EF-G or eEF2)
Mutations that add or delete nucleotides that affect translocation.
Frameshift Mutations
What are the three stop codons?
UAA
UAG
UGA
What are the two release factors in eukaryotic cells?
eRF1 and eRF3
_______ produce stop codons and cause premature chain termination.
Nonsense mutations
In some cases, nonsense mutations are destroyed by _______.
Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD)
_______ protects the cells from nonfunctional proteins.
NMD
The _______ can be used to detect an inappropriate stop.
Exon-junctions complex (EJC)
A _______/_______ is a complex of multiple ribosomes on mRNA, allowing simultaneous translation.
polyribosome/polysome
_______ can increase the rate of protein synthesis.
Polyribosomes