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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Another name for protein synthesis.
What are the three main stages of translation?
1.) Initiation
2.) Elongation
3.) Termination
Translation begins at the _______, which puts the ribosome in the proper _______.
initiation codon
reading frame
What is the initiation codon sequence?
Initiation requires proteins called _______.
initiation factors (IFs)
What is the Shine-Dalgarno sequence?
In mRNAs:

5' AGGAGG 3'
What is the Kozack sequence?
In bacterial cells, the _______ guides the small ribosomal unit to the correct initiation codon.
Shine-Dalgarno sequence
In eukaryotes, the _______ recognizes the 5' end of the message and finds the first AUG triplet by scanning.
smallest ribosomal subunit
AUG codes for _______, so it is always the first amino acid to be incorporated into the polypeptide chain.
How many types of methionyl-tRNAs are there?
2: one for initiation and one for residues on the polypeptide.
After the initiator tRNA is bound, the _______ of the ribosome joins the complex.
large subunit
How many sites are there on a ribosome for tRNA?
P(peptidyl) site
A (aminoacyl) site
E (exit) site
The _______ cycle is the process of adding each subsequent amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain.
_______ catalyzes the bond formation between amino acids.
Peptidyl Transferase
In bacteria, the ribosome moves 3 nucleotides along the mRNA in the _______ direction during _______.
5' -> 3'

Translocation is driven by conformational changes in an _______.
Elongation factor (EF-G or eEF2)
Mutations that add or delete nucleotides that affect translocation.
Frameshift Mutations
What are the three stop codons?
What are the two release factors in eukaryotic cells?
eRF1 and eRF3
_______ produce stop codons and cause premature chain termination.
Nonsense mutations
In some cases, nonsense mutations are destroyed by _______.
Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD)
_______ protects the cells from nonfunctional proteins.
The _______ can be used to detect an inappropriate stop.
Exon-junctions complex (EJC)
A _______/_______ is a complex of multiple ribosomes on mRNA, allowing simultaneous translation.
_______ can increase the rate of protein synthesis.