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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
starch digestion begins in the mouth by the enzyme ___
salivary amylase
the stomach has ___ cells that produce hydrochloric acid to aid in killing microorganisms and protien digestion
perietal
the stomach has ___ cells that produce mucous protecting the stomach lining from the acidity of the hydrochloric acid
goblet
the chief cells of the stomach produce ___ which aids in protien digestion
pepsinogen
protien in the stomach that aids in absorption of B12
intrinsic factor
the only thing absorbed in the stomach is:
water
few ions
some drugs
the main function of the stomach is to liquify food into ___ which is a semi-solid
chyme
when pepsinogen is combined with hydrochloric acid in the stomach, the pepsinogen is converted into __.
pepsin
alcholics lack intrinsic factor to absorb B12 and are susceptible to _____
pernicious anemia
___ hydrolyzes fatty acids from triglycerides
gastric lipase
there are no __ digestive enzymes in the stomach
starch
the _____ of the inferior stomach, prevents backflow of chyme from the intestine
phyloric sphincter
the small intestine consists of:
duodenum
jejunum
ileum
cecum
food is moved along the small intestine by ___ which is a wave like contraction of the smooth muscle
peristalsis
in the small intestine, ___, ___, ___, and ___ are enzymes which aid in starch digestion
pancreatic amylase
sucrase
lactase
maltase
hydrolyzes protiens and polypeptides in the sm intestine
trypsin
in sm intestine, ___ hydrolyzes fatty acids from triglycerides
pancreatic lipase
in sm intestine, ___ hydrolyzes lecithin into fatty acids and monoglycerides
lecithinase
Any Vitamin K that is absorbed by the bacterial flora goes to the liver to produce ___, necessary for blood clotting
prothrombin
blood goes into the liver through the __ artery and is carried away by the ____ vein.
hepatic

hepatic portal
bile is produced by the ___ and stored by the ___.
liver

gallbladder
bile contains ____ acids which emulsify fats
ampiphilic
breakdown of hemoglobin in RBC by the liver
bilirubin
In patients with liver disfunction the liver will not break down the bilirubin and it builds up in the bloodstream causing the patient to become __.
jaundice
the spincter of __ controls the flow of bile out of the gallbladder and is joined with the pancreatic duct into the small intestine
oddi
bone, cartilage, and connective tissues are derived form the ___
mesenchyme
4 type of bones:
short
long
flat
irregular
long bones have an __ at either end and a __ which surrounds each medulliary cavity
epiphysis

diaphysis
the __ surrounds and protects the bone
periosteum
tendons attach __ to __
bones to muscle
ligaments attach __ to __
bone to bone
the spinal column contains __cervical, __thoracic, __lumbar, __sacral,and __ coccygeal vertebrae.
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
4-5 coccygeal
the axial skeleton contains:
skull
spinal column
sternum
ribs
c1 is named the __ which allows for an up and down motion of the head
atlas
c2 is named the __ which allows for a side to side motion of the head
axis
the endocrine glands are __ and produce hormones
ductless
The pancreatic endocrine portion consists of the isles of Langerhans which has alpha cells that produce __ and beta cells that produce __
glucagon

insulin
the exocrine portion of the pancreas produces pancreatic fluid made up of:
sodium bicarbonate (neutralizes ph)

pancreatic lipase (hydrolize fats into fatty acids and monoglycerides)

pancreatic amylase (hydrolyze starches into maltose)

protease (digest protiens)
the largest lyphoid organ is the __ that functions to filter out old RBC
spleen
the __ is located below the sternum and can not be palpated. It is divided into two parts the cortex and the medulla
thymus
the medulla of the thymus is invoved with maturing lymphocytes into __ cells. the medulla is most active in childhood and atrophies with age
T cells
the hypothalamus produces __ and __ hormones
oxytocin
antidiuretic
The nephrons of the glomerulus is surrounded by the ___
bowmans capsule
the heart starts beating in utero at __ days
22
in utero there is an opening between the two atria called the ___ because the lungs are not yet functioning an the blood is oxygenated via the placenta
fossa ovalis
The heart has the ability to conduct electricity therefore it has specialized cells that is involuntary striated muscle and myocardial cells joined together by ___
intercalated discs
layers of the heart from exterior to interior
pericardial sac
epicardium
myocardium
endocardium
in dentistry, patients for the bacterial infection, ___ must be premedicated with an antibiotic
endocarditis
arteries always carry oxygenated blood with the exception of the __ arteries
pulmonary
viens always carry deoxygenated blood with the exception of the __ veins.
pulmonary
the valve from the right atrium to the right ventricle is called:
tricuspid valve
all four chambers of the heart are never in systole at once...
all 4 valves are never open at once
bradycardia is when the heart beat is lower than __ beats per minute
60
tachycardia is when the heart beat is higher than 100 beats per minute
100
bodys natural pacemaker
sa node
the electrical current of the heart travels from the SA node to the ___. From there it is transmitted to the bundle of his which divides and then it travels to the ____.
AV node

Purkinge fibers
the __ nervous system increases the heart rate and the __ nervous system decreases the heart rate.
sympathetic

parasympathetic
the upper resperatory tract consists of:
nose
pharynx
larynx
the lower resperatory tract consists of:
trachea
bronchi
bronchioles
alveoli