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91 Cards in this Set

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Norman Triplett
investigated the effect of competition on performance;
found that people perform better on familiar tasks when in the presence of others than when along
William McDougall
published the first textbooks on social psychology
E.H. Ross
published the first textbooks on social psychology
showed that the course of a conversation changes dramatically upon the feeback (approval) of from others; helped establish the reinforcement theory as an important perspective in stuyding social behavior
reinforcement theory
behavior is motivated by anticipated rewards
Albert Bandura
main figure in social learning theory;
proposed that behavior is learned through imitatio
role theory
the perspective that people are aware of the social roles they are expected to fill, and much of their observable behavior can be attributed to adopting those roles
cognitive theory
involves pereption, judgement, memories, and decision making
include cognition or beliefs, feelings, and behavioral predisposition;
are typically expressed in opinion statements;
are likes and dislikes, affinties for and aversion to things, people, ideas, etc.
consistency theories
people prefer consistency, and will change or resist changing attitudes based upon this preference
Fritz Heider's balance theory
concered with the way three elements are related: the person whom we are talking to (P), some other person (O), and a thing, idea, or some other person (X). Balance exists when all three fit together harmoniously. When there isn't balance, there will be stress, and a tendency to remove this stress by achieving balance. Imbalance occurs when somone agrees with someon he or she dislikes, or disagrees ith someone he or she lies.
Leon Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory
Cognitive dissoance is the conflic that u feel when your attitudes are not in synch with your behaviors. Engaging in behaviors that conflicts with an attitude may result in changing one's attitude so that it is consistent with the behavior.
free-choice dissonant
occurs in a situation where a person makes a choice between several desirable alternatives.
post-decisional dissonance
dissonance that emerges after a choice has been made
spreading of alternatives
the relative worth of the two alternatives is spread apart
forced-compliance dissonance
occurs when an individual is forced into having a maner that is inconsistent with his or her beliefs or attitudes; the force may come from either anticipated punishment or reward
minimal justification effect
When behavior can be justified by means of external inducements, there is no need to change internal cognition. However, when the external justification is minimal, you will reduce your dissonace by changing internal cognitions; this is sometimes called insufficient justification effec.t
Darly Bem's self-perception theory
When your attitudes about something are weak or ambiguous, you observe your own behavior and attribute an attitude to yourself.
People infer what their attitudes are based upon observation of their own behavior. A person's initial attitude is irrelevant and there is no discomfort produced by behavior.
overjustification effect
If you reward people for something they already like doing, they may stop liking it.
Carl Hovland's model
deals with attitude change as a process of communicating a message with the intent to persuade someone
Carl Hovland's model: three commonents of communiation of persuasion
1) the communicator--the source; someone who has taken a position on an issue and is trying to persuade someone to adopt his or her position; produces communication
2) the communication--presentation of argument
3) the situation--the surroundings in which the communication takes place
sleeper effect
The persuasive impact of the high credibility decreases over time, while the persuasive impact of the the low credibility source increases over time.
two-sided messages
contain arguments for and against a position
Petty and Cacioppo's elaboration likelihood model of persuasion
There are two routes to persuasion: the central route and the peripheral route. If the issue is very important to us, we're dealing with the central route to persuasion. If the issue is not very important to us or if we cannot clearly hear the message, we're dealing with the peripheral route to persuasion.
cultural trisms
beliefs that are seldom questioned
William McGuire
The innoculation procces against diseases in the body is anallogous to the mind--people can be inoculated against the attack of persuasive communications.
belief perseverance
People will hold beliefs even after they have been shown to be false.
When social pressure to behave in a particular way becomes so blatant that the person's sense of freedom is threatened, the person will tend to act in a way to reassert a sense of freedom.
Leon Festinger's social comparison theory
We are drawn to affiliate because of a tendency to evaluate ourelves in relationship to other people.
Leon Festinger's social comparison theory: three principles
1) People prefer to evaluate themselves by ojbective, nonsocial means. However, when this is not possible, people evaluate their opinions and abilities by comparing them to those of other people.
2) The less similarity of opinions and abilities between two people, the less the tendency to make these comparisons.
3)When a discrepancy exists with respect to opinions and abilities, there is a tendency to change one's position so as to move it in line with the group.
Stanly Schatcher
found that greater anxiety does lead to greater desire to affiliate; a situation that provokes littely anxiety typially doe snot lead to a desire to affiliate.
reciprocity hypothesis
We tend to like peopl who indicate that they like us. We tend to dislike people who dislike us.
Arnoson and Linder
gain-loss principle
gain-loss principle
An evaluation that hcanges will have more of an impact than an evaluation that remains constant. Thus, we will like someone more if their liking for us has increased (showing a gain) than someone who has consistently liked us. Similarity, we will generally dislike someone more whose liking for us has decreased (shown a loss)than someon who has consistently disliked us.
Two main principles of cognitive dissonance theory
1)if a person is pressured to say or do something, there will be a tendency for him or her to change those attitudes.
2)the greater the pressure to comply, the less this attitude change. ultimately, attitude change generally occurs when the behavior is induced with minimum pressure.
refuted couterarguments
inoculation against attacks on cultural truisms by first presenting arguments against the truism and then refuting the arguments
social exchange theory
assumes that a person weight the rewards and costs of interacting with another; the more the rewards outweigh the costs, the greater the attraction to the other person
equity theory
we consider not only our own costs and rewards, but the costs and rewards of the other person; we prefer that our ratio of costs to rewards be qual to the other person's ratio
need complementarity
people choose relationships so that they mutually satisfy each other's needs; the person who likes to talk is completemented by the person who likes to listen
attractiveness stereotype
the tendency to attribute positive qualities and desirable characteristics to attactive people
mere exposure hypothesis
mere repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to enhanced liking for it; the more you see something, the more you like it
Robert Zajonc
key figure in mere exposure research
a form of helping behavior in which the person's intnent is to benefit someone else at some cost to himself or herself
helping behavior
includes altruistic motiviations and behaviors that may be motivated by egoism or selfishness
John Darley and Bibb Lantané
research on bystander intervention
pluralistic ignorance
leading others to a defintion of an event as a nonemergency
the ablity to vicariously experience the emotions of another; thought to be a strong inlfluence on helping behavior
Batson's empath-altruism model
when faced with situations in which others may need help, people might feel distress (mental pain or anguish) and/or they might feel empathy; both these states are important, since either can determine helping behavior
when people are frustrated, they act aggressively; the strength of the frustration experienced is correlated with the levle of aggression observed
Bandur's social learning theory
aggression is learned through modelign or through reinforcement; aggressive behavior is selectively reinforced--people act aggressively because they expect some sor of reward for doing so
direct observation
autokinetic effect
if you stare at a point of light in a room that is otherwise completely dark, the light will appear to move
Muzafer Sherif
used the autokinetic effect to study conformity; found that individuals conformed to the group; their judgements converged on some group norm
yielding to group pressure when no explicit demand has been made to do so
compared length of lines; four that subjectis yieled to group pressure and chose incorrect line
experimenter podded suject to give electric shock to other person; subjects shocekd person; majority continued shocking up to maximum voltage
foot-in-the-door effect
compliance with a small request increases the likelihood of compliance with a larger request
door-in-the-face effect
people who refurse a large intial request are more likely to agree to a later small request
Clark, K and Clark, M
performed study on doll preferences in African American children; the majority of the white and black children preferred the white doll ude to the negative effects of racism and minority group status on the self-concept of black children; the results were used in the 1954 Brown v the Topeka Board of Education Supreme Court case
social perception
the ways in which we form impressions about the characteristics of individuals and of groups of people
primary effect
refers to those occassions when first impressions are more important than subsequent impressions
recency effect
the most recent imformation we have about an individual is most important in forming our impressions
attribution theory
the tendency for indivuals to infer the causes of other people's behavior
Fritz Heider
one of the founding fathers of attributed theory; says that we are all naive amateur psychologists who attempt to discover causes and effects in events: dipositional causes and situational causes
dispositional attribution
related to the features of a person whose behavior is being considered
situational attibution
external and those that related to featurs of the surroundings
fundamental attribution error
when inferring the causes of others' behaviors, there is a general bias towards making dispositional attributions rather than situational attributions
halo effect
the tendency to allow a general impression about a person (I like Jill in general) to influence other, more specific evaluations about a person (Jill is good write, Jill is trusthworthy, Jill can do no wrong); explains why people are ofen inaccurate in evaluation of people that they either believe to be generally good, or those that they believe to be generally bad
studied the tendency of indivduals to believe in a just world
just world
good things would happen to good people, and bad things would happen to bad people
Theodore Necomb
studied political norms
Edward Hall
studied norms for interpersonal distance in interpersonal interactions
the study of how individuals space themselves in relation to others
studied the mere exposure effect; resolved problems with the social faciliation effect by suggesting that the precence of others enhances the emission of dominant response and impairs the emission of nondominant responses
social loafing
a group phenomenon referring to the tendency for people tp ut forth less effort
Philip Zimbardo
found that people are more likely to commit acts when they feel anonymous within a social environment; performed prison simulation and used the concept of deindividuation to explain results
a loss of self-awareness and of personal identity
Irving Janis
developed the concept of groupthink to explain how group decisions can sometimes go awry
the tendency of decision making groups to strive for consensus by not considering discordant information
risky shift
the finding that group decisions are riskier than the average of the individual choices (and this average riskiness of the individual choices can be considered to be an estimate of the group's original riskiness)
value hypothesis
the risky shift occurs in situations in which riskiness is culturally valued
group polarization
a tendency for gorup discussion to ehance the group's intial tendencies towards riskiness or caution
leaders of groups engage in more communication than nonleader; research shows that by artificially increasing the amount a person speaks, that person's perceived leadership status also increases.
Kurt Lewin
divided leadership styles into 3 categories: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire
laissez-faire group of leaders
less effificent, less organized, and less satisfying than the democratic group
autocratic group
more hostile, more aggressive, and more dependet on their leader; greatest quantity of work
democratic groups
moe satisfying and more cohesive than autocratic groups; had greatest work motivation and interest
persons acts together for their mutual benefit so that all of them can obtain a goal
a person acts for his or her individual benefit so that he or she can obtain a goal that has limited availability
prisoner's dilemma
A given person gains most if he or she chooses to cooperate, and the other competes. Together, they lose the most if both compete. a given indivual loses the most if he or hse competes and the other cooperates.
superordinate goals
goals best obtained through intergroup cooperation