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18 Cards in this Set

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What are the stages of the menstrual cycle?
follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase, menses
what is another name for the Follicular phase
bollicular phase is also called the proliferative or preovulatory phase
What is the most notable feature of the follicular phase?
This pase is dominated by the peripheral effects of the estrogen being secreted from the estrogen.
What is the time period for the follicular phase?
It represents the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle.
Which stage is after the follicular phase and what is this phase produced by?
Ovulation is after the follicular phase and this is characterized by the LH surge which actually induces ovulation.
Which stage is after ovulation and what is it characterized by?
The Luteal phase is after ovulation and it is characterized by elevated plasma levels of progesterone which along with the estrogen secreted prepares the uterus for implantation.
Which stage is after the luteal phase and what is it characterized by?
menses is after the luteal phase and it is characterized by a withdrawl of the hormonal support of the endometrium.
What are the two main cells involved in the production of estrogen?
theca cells and granulosa cells
What is the target cell for LH during the follicular phase?
the Theca Cell
Where is the theca cell located and what does the theca cell do?
located in the ovary and they produces androgens. But little of the androgens are secreted, most of them go the the adjacent granulosa cells.
Why can the theca cells not produce hormones beyond the androgens? (e.g. estrogen)
They do not have aromatase activity
What cell is the male are the theca cells in the overy compared to?
leydig cells
Why are granulosa cells special?
they possess the follicle's only FSH receptors, When coupled to FSH the aromatase activity increases, and thus more estrogen is produced.
What cell in the male system are the granulosa cells of the female compared to?
sertoli cells of the testes.
What is the negative feedback for LH and FSH secretion in females as compared to males?
In females the negative feedback is due to estrogen, whereas in males it is due to inhibin from the sertoli cells
Do the granulosa cells secrete inhibin and what is it's function?
the granulosa cells do secret inhibin but the function is unknown.
Why does estrogen continue to rise at the end of the follicular phase even though it is exhibiting a negative foodback on both LH and FSH?
It continues to rise because estrogen has a local effect on the granulosa and theca cells which cause the estrogen to enhance it's own production. Therefore there is a positive feedback loop on the theca and granulosa cells which is created by estrogen. This positive feedback loop is responsible for the continued rise in estrogen.
Over the course of the follicular phase describe the secretion of estrogen.
estrogen secretion is rising over the entire period of the follicular phase.