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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
outer membrane of nuclear envelope
continuous with rough endoplasmic reticulum
site of rRNA synthesis and ribosome assembly
the higher the cholesterol content
the more tightly the phospholipids of the bilayer are packed, high rigidity and low fluidity
increasing proportion of unsaturated fatty acids or shorter-chain fatty acids
increases membrane fluidity
dcreases fluidity somewhat but prevents actual freezing, always increases mechanical stability
simple diffusion
not saturable
nuclear env
thicker than the plasma memb
nuclear lamin
a lattice-like network of proteins has an impt role in the structural organization of the nucleus
most abundant RNA in the cell
non histone protein
enzymes involved in DNA repair, transcription, replication, etc
transcriptionally inactive, highly condensed
transcriptionally active form of chromatin
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
muscle at the gastroesophageal jxn sometimes called a physiological sphincter bc it is not a true anatomic sphincter
secretin, cck, coffee, alcohol, stomach distension
decrease LES (lower esophageal sphincter) tone, predisposing pts to gastroesophagel reflux dz (GERD)
inability of LES to relax
regulation of LES accomplished by inhibitory neurons releasing
nitic oxide (NO) and VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide,as stimulation of secretion by the pancreas and small intestine, vasodilation, and inhibition of gastric juice production)
cck, secretin, GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide)
inhibit gastric emptying
Brunner's glands
mucus secretion in duodenum
produced by G cells in duodenum, secretion stimulated by vagal discharge and products of digestion, main fxn to stimulate HCL secretion by parietal cells and pepsinogen from chief cells
produced by duodenum, stimulate pancreatic enzyme secretion, stimulate gallbladder contraction, decrease gastric emptying
stimulate bicarbonate containing fluid from the pancreas and liver, inhibition of gastric emptying and inhibition of gastric acid production
GIP (gastric inhibitory peptide)
stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion in the presence of hyperglycemia
when pH is greater than the pKa
the base form (A-) is dominant
when pH is less than the pKa
the acid (HA) form is dominant
pH where the concentrations of the acid and its conjugate base is equal
most effective when used in a pH range near the pKa
when HA = A-
pH of the solution equal to pKa of the weak acid
major buffer in plasma and interstitial fluid
protein and organic phosphate esters
major buffers of intracellular fluid
only aa with good buffering capacity at physiological pH
carbonic acid
bicarbonate anion
L amino acids
only these are incorporated into proteins
pH at which a molecule is electrically neutral
isoelectric point
at neutral pH, has both a negative and a positive charge
a single mRNA with bunch of ribosomes from 5 to 3 direction
golgi apparatus
cis faces RER, trans faces plasma memb, fxn: posttranslational modification
major peroxisomal protein, degrades the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen
beta oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, reduce to c10 and complete in mitochondria
VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide)
reside in the parasympathetic ganglia in sphincters, gallbladder and small intestine, stimulate water and electrolyte secretion, relax intestinal smooth ms, inhibit gastric juice
inhibits the release of cck, gastrin, most GI hormones
parietal cells
secrete HCL and intrinsic factor
chediak-higashi syndrome
defect in the ability of microtubules to polymerize within leukocytes, leads to a delay in the fusion of phagosomes within lysosomes, preventing phagocytosis of bacteria
caused by immotile cilia in respiratory tract, inability to move inhaled bacteria
plasma memb of muscle cells
druing contraction, A band
does not change size
adherent jxn
connect actin filaments in adjacent cells
connect intermediate filaments of adjacent cells
increased intracellular calcium will
close gap jxns, this prevents the death of one cell from killing its coupled neighbors
increase in cAMP will
increase gap jxns to communicate
carbohydrate component of proteoglycans
two major structural proteins are
collagen and elastin (both are fibrous proteins)
two major adhesive proteins in extracellular matrix are
fibronectin and laminin
major glycoprotein in basal lamina, mediates attachment of cells to CT
Wolff's law
tension on bone causes bone formation, pressure on bone results in bone resorption
reversal line
cessation of resorption, when osteoclastic ceases during bone remodeling
Howship's lacunae
region from where bone was resorbed, osteoclasts are usually located here in depressions of the bone surface
hcg (human chorionic gonadotropin)
this hormone maintains the corpus luteum and its progesterone secretion until placenta begins to produce its own progesterone
one of embryblast layers, primary ectoder, form the amniotic cavity
one of embryoblast layers, primary endoder, primary yolk sac
toward the oral or nasal region, superior, if considering brain, anterior or ventral
three germ layers derived from
3rd week to 8th wk in gestation
3rd month to birth
ectodermal nerual crest cells form
dorsal root ganglia, sensory ganglia of cranial nerves, autonomic ganglia, meninges, schwann cells, adrenal medulla, melanocytes
ectodermal derivatives
nervous system, otic and lens placode, skin hair, nails, tooth enamel, pituitary and mammary glands
mesodermal derivatives
adrenal cortex
endodermal layer derivatives
GI tract