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146 Cards in this Set

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The basic unit of matter is called ____________.
atom
Describe the nucleus of an atom.
Strongly bonded protons and neutrons form he nucleus in the center of the atom.
Protons
positive charge, froms nucleus in the center
neutrons
neutral charge, forms nucleus in the center
electron
negative charge, around nucleus in electron cloud
Why are atoms neutral despite having charged particles?
Because atoms have equal numbers of electrons and protons, and because these subatomic particles have equal but opposite charges.
What is a chemical element?
A pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom.
What does an element's atomic number represent?
The number of electrons and protons in an atom of element.
Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain are known as ____________.
isotopes
How are isotopes identified?
mass number
Why do all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties?
Because they have all the same protons
______ never change!
protons
All elements on the periodic table are ____________.
neutral
The capital letter (and possibly a lower case letter) on the periodic table is known as the ___________.
atomic symbol
The number at the bottom of the box of an element on the perodic table is called the _____________.
atomic mass
Number of protons+neutrons=
atomic mass
The number in the right hand corner of the box of an element on the periodic table is known as _______________.
atomic number
Every layer, except for the first, which holds _____, all others hold a maximum of _____.
2; 8
If you have 3 or fewer electrons in your cloud, you want to _______, if more than 4, you want to __________, if 8 you want to _____________, and for four you want to _________.
lose; gain; nothing; shares
What is a chemical compound?
A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.
What does the large number mean in front of the chemical symbols? What does the underscored number mean?
the large means the number of molecules
the underscored number means atoms
What does the formula for table salt indicate about that compound?
The sodium and chloride are in a 1:1 ratio.
What holds atoms in compounds together?
stored energy in chemical bonds
If a substance has 11 p+ and 10 e-, what is its charge?
1+ positive ion
If a substance has 17 p+ and 18 e-, what is its charge?
1- negative ion
A covalent bond is formed when __________________.
electrons are shared between atoms.
A nonmetal and a nonmetal bonded (including __________), is ______________ bond.
hydrogen
covalent
An ionic bond isformed when _____________________.
one or more electrons are transfered from one atom to another;
A metal and a nonmetal bond to form a _____________ bond. These are formed from opposite sides of the __________ table. DOES NOT INCLUDE: _______________.
ionic
periodic
hydrogen
What is an ion?
Positively and negatively charged atoms.
An ion is __________ if it loses electrons. An ion is _________ if it gains electrons.
positive;
negative
The structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds is called a __________.
molecule
In a _________ molecule, each hydrogen atom forms a single covalent bond.
water
Atoms can share six electrons and form a _____________ bond.
triple
In a covalent bond, ___________ are shared.
electrons
The slight attractions that develop between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules are called ________________.
van der Waals forces
A water __________ is not neutral.
molecule
Why is a water molecule polar?
Because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms
The attraction between the hydrogen atom on one water molecule and the oxygen atom on another water molecle is an example of a ____________ bond.
hydrogen
The symbol which looks like a combination between a "S" and a "D" and stands for a partial charge is called a ___________.
dipole
_________ is the attraction between molecules of the same substance.
cohesion
___________ is the attraction between molecules of different substances.
adhesion
What is a mixture?
a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together, but NOT CHEMICALLY combined.
A mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substance are evenly mixed is called a ____________, also known as ___________.
solution, homogeneous
The greatest solvent in the world is _____________.
water
What is a suspension?
mixtures of water and nondissolved material
The susbtance dissolved is the _________.
solute
The substance in which the solute is dissolved is the _____________.
solvent
H+ and OH- =
H2O
Why is water neutral despite the production of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions?
Because the number of positive hydrogen ions produced is equal to the number of the negative hydroxide ions produced.
What does the pH scale indicate?
the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.
0-6.9999 is an __________.
acid
7.011111-14 is a ___________.
base
EXACTLY 7.0 is a __________.
neutral
The numbers on the pH scale are built on a scale of ________.
10
How many more H+ ions does a solution with a pH of 4 have than a solution with a pH of 5?
10
What is an acid?
any compound that forms H+ ions in a solution
TRUE OR FALSE? Strong bases have pH values ranging from 11 to 14.
TRUE
What are buffers?
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.
How many valence electrons does each carbon atom have?
four
What gives carbon the ability to form chains that are almost unlimited in length?
it can bond to other carbon atoms
___________ means that there are 4 electrons in the outer shell.
tetravalence
Many of the molecules in living cells are so large that they are known as ___________.
macromolecules
What is the process called by which macromolecules are formed?
polymerization
When monomers join together, what do they form?
polymers
What are the four groups of organic compounds found in living things?
1. carbohydrates
2. lipids
3. nucleic acid
4. proteins
What atoms make up carbohydrates?
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Starches and sugars are examples of _____________.
carbohydrates
Living things use ___________ as their main source of energy.
carbohydrates
Plants and some animals use __________ for srength and rigidity.
carbohydrates
Single sugar molecules are called ___________.
monosaccharides
Galactose, glucose, and fructose are examples of ___________.
monosacchrides
What are polysacchrides?
the large macromolecules formed from monosacchrides
How do plants and animals store excess sugar?
humans-liver
plants-carbohydrates
animals-protein
What kinds of atoms are lipids mostly made up of?
carbon and hydrogen
What are the three most common categories of lipids?
fats, oils, and waxes
Many lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule cmbines with compounds called ___________.
fatty acids
Lipids are used in living things as:
1.
2.
3.
1. part of biological membranes
2. to store energy
3. as chemical messengers
In a ________ lipid, each carbon atom in a lipid's fatty acid chain is joined to anoter carbon atom by a single bond.
saturated
An ___________ kind of lipid has at least one carbon-carbon double bond is found in a fatty acid.
unsaturated
A ___________ lipid is one in which a lipid's fatty acids contain more than one double bond.
polyunsaturated
Nucleic acids contain what kinds of atoms?
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorous
The monomers that make up nucleic acids are known as __________.
nucleotides
A nucleotide consists of what three parts?
a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base
What is the function of nucleic acids in living things?
store and trasmit genetic information
What are the two kinds of nucleic acids?
RNA and DNA
Proteins contain what kinds of atoms?
nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Proteins are polymers of molecules called ____________.
amino acids
An ________ is a catalyst that speeds up the chemical reaction.
enzyme
What are the four roles that proteins play in living things?
1. control the rate of reaction
2. regulate cell processes
3. form bones and muscles
4. transport substances into or out of cells to help fight disease
What is a chemical reaction?
A process that changes, or transforms one set of chemicals into another.
____________ are elements or compounds that enter a chemical reaction; displayed on the left side of the chemical equation.
reactants
____________ are elements or compounds producd by a chemical reaction; displayed on the right side of the chemical equation.
products
Chemical reactions always involve changes in chemical ____________.
bonds
What is released or absorbed whenever chemical bonds form or are broken?
energy
What do chemical reactions that absorb energy need to occur?
a source of energy
Chemists call the energy needed to get a reaction started the ___________.
activation energy
What is a catalyst?
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Proteins that act as biological catalysts are called _________.
enzymes
What do enzymes do?
speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells
From what is part of an enzyme's name usually derived?
the reaction it catalyzes
The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions are known as ____________.
substrates
Why are the active site and the substrates in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction often compared to a lock and key?
Because the active site and the substrates have complimentary shapes and precise fittings.
The binding together of an enzyme and substrate forms an ____________.
enzyme substrate complex
How do most cells regulate the activity of enzymes?
changing their shapes, denaturation
The polymer, carbohydrate's common names are : _________ (small) and _________ (big).
Names often end in "- _____"
sugar, starches
-ose
The monomer of a carbohydrate is _________.
monosaccharide
Carbohydrates are used for ___________, which is stored in the liver as __________. Plants use carbohydrates for structure, or _________.
quick energy
glycogen
cellulose
Name the four polymers.
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
Lipids are commonly referred to as _______, ________, and __________.
fats, oils, and waxes
The two categories of lipids are ________ and __________.
saturated and unsaturated
The monomer of lipids is _________, which is a _________ molecule bonded to 3 _____________ chains.
triglycerides
glycerol
fatty acid
The four uses of lipids are:
long term __________ storage, ________, ___________, and most importantly for ____________.
energy, insulation, waterproofing, cell membranes
What are the two types of nucleic acids?
RNA & DNA
What is the monomer of nucleic acids?
nucleotides
What is a nucleotide made up of?
sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen base
What is the main function of nucleic acids?
store genetic info in units called genes
Which polymer is very large, very complex, and works by lock and key mechanism?
proteins
What is the monomer of proteins?
amino acids
What are amino acids made up of?
amine group (NH2) carboxyl group (COOH), and R group (varies)
Name the six functions of proteins:
__________ (most animals' parts), __________ (catalyzes), _________ messengers, ____________, ____________, and fight _________.
structural
enzymes
chemical
receptors
transporters
disease
Whatever function _________ do, they must fit their _________ exactly, or they will NOT work.
proteins
substrate
Changes to pH or temperature cause proteins to ___________, they change shape and stop working.
denature
_________ are liquid at room temperature, while _________ are solid at room temperature.
unsaturated, saturated
_________ have at least one double or triple bond.
unsaturated
________, carbon have nothing but single bonds.
saturated
Examples of _________ are vegetable oil, olive oil, peanut oil, fish oil, etc. (usually plant fat)
unsaturated
Examples of __________ are animal fat, bacon fat, lard, and Crisco.
saturated
________ is considered good, while __________ is considered bad.
unsaturated
saturated
In _________, bonds are broken down.
decomposition
In synthesis, bonds are ___________.
made
AB+C= AC+B
or
AB+CD=AC+BD
Both are examples of _____________.
exchange
____________ involves both synthesis and decomposition reactions.
exchange
____________ is when 2 or more atoms, molecules, or compounds combine to form a larger, more complex molecule.
synthesis
A+B=AB
Is an example of _________.
synthesis
___________ is when a molecule or compound is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms, or ions.
decomposition
AB=A+B
is an example of __________.
decomposition
Hydrogen bonds are _________ than ionic or covalent bonds.
weaker
____________ bonds are weak bonds where a hydrogen atom (attached to N or O atom) forms a bridge to another e- hungry atom.
hydrogen
_________ bonds aid in adhesion (water clinging to other surfaces) and cohesion (water molecules clinging to each other).
hydrogen
_________ bonds form the base pair bonds between N bases involved in RNA or DNA.
hydrogen
Covalent bonds can be _________ or _________.
polar or nonpolar
In ________ e- are shared equally, no charge.
nonpolar
In _________ e- are hogged by one atom, charged poles (neg, pos.) form at ends of compounds.
polar
Ionic bonds form between __________ and ____________- on opposite sides of the periodic table. EXCEPT ____________
metals and nonmetals
hydrogen
In an _________ bond, electrons are completely transferred form one atom to another, that atom that gained an e- becomes negatively charged, the atom that lost the e- becomes positively charged.
ionic