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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Adjudication hearing
The equivalent of an adult trial.
A period of supervised time after release from a state juvenile facility. Also referred to as juvenile parole.
Refers to the two part process when adjudicating juveniles. The adjudication hearing is the first part, disposition or sentencing is the second part.
An acronym for Children In Need of Supervision that is typically given to status offenders. Other popular acronyms include PINS (Persons In Need of Supervision) or MINS (Minors In Need of Supervision).
Controversy of culpability
Refers to the controversy concerning the age at which a child can be held responsible for his or her actions because of the ability to possess mens rea, or a guilty mind. The controversy centers on different ideas about the age of responsibility as evidenced by the differing minimum ages of jurisdiction in states.
Crime control era
Generally the point in time starting in the 1980s, which denotes a concern in the rise in drug usage, gun possession, and drug sales, particularly crack cocaine among juveniles. Concern for the rise in these types of juvenile crime signaled get tough policy on juvenile offenders.
Deferred probation
An agreement with the court intake officer (either probation officer or prosecutor) where a juvenile is not petitioned to the juvenile court in lieu of the successful completion of a period of time without further delinquency offenses. The period of time is typically six months.
Deferred prosecution
Similar to deferred probation and is an agreement not to prosecute or petition the youth as long as he or she completes a period of time without further delinquent involvement.
Any act committed by a juvenile that would be considered a criminal offense if committed by an adult.
A situation where parents are not able to adequately take care of their children typically through death or disability.
Detention facilities
A short term locked facility which holds juveniles at three points in timeafter arrest, before the adjudication hearing, and after disposition while the youth awaits transfer to a state operated juvenile justice facility. Detention facilities also hold probation and parole violators.
The release from aftercare and state supervision.
The sentencing stage of the juvenile justice process. Disposition in the juvenile justice system is the equivalent to sentencing in the criminal justice system.
General (or Standard) conditions
Conditions of probation or parole that every youth will face. Common examples include reporting and community service.
Houses of refuge
An institution of the early 1800s for delinquent and other wayward children. Houses of Refuge are considered the first juvenile institutions.
A sentence without a fixed amount of time. The sentence is open-ended where the juvenile will be held until rehabilitated.
Being placed in a state operated juvenile justice facility.
Juvenile court era
The period of time from 1899 until 1966 where the first separate juvenile court was established in Cook County, Illinois.
Juvenile rights era
The period of time from 1967 until 1979 which witnessed the juvenile justice system become more adult like in the processing of juvenile delinquents.
Mens rea
A guilty mind.
Minimum age of Responsibility
The lowest age at which a juvenile can be held responsible for their acts.
A situation where parents do not take care of their kids but have the ability to do so. Abandonment and abuse generally fall under neglect.
Term used to refer to youth who will not face a juvenile court hearing but have been diverted another way.
Non-typical delinquent
Serious and violent juveniles. Most delinquents are not serious.
Original jurisdiction
The court which will hear a delinquency case originally.
Parens patriae
Parent of a country. The doctrine that the state has the authority to intervene in the life of a child.
A formal complaint to the juvenile court by an intake officer requesting an adjudication hearing.
Pre-disposition report
A report conducted by a juvenile probation officer that details a juvenile’s history such as substance abuse, home life, abuse, prior juvenile record and evidence of psychological evaluations. This report is used by the juvenile court judge prior to making a ruling on the juvenile’s disposition.
Pre-juvenile court era
The time period from 1636 to 1898 characterized by juveniles being dealt with the same way as adults. There was no separate juvenile court during the Pre-Juvenile Court Era.
A sentence where a youth is released to the custody of his or her parents but subject to conditions of behavior via the juvenile court.
Probation revocation
The process of taking away a youth’s probation status because of non-compliance with the law or stipulations of probation. A youth who has had his or her probation revoked can face institutionalization in a state operated juvenile justice facility.
Special conditions
Conditions of probation/aftercare to which only some offenders will be subjected. For example, sex offenders may be subject to a special condition of sex offender counseling. Not all delinquents need sex offender counseling thus it is a special condition for a special type of offender.
Status offense
An act only prohibited for juveniles.
A notice of a juvenile adjudication hearing given to all witnesses, parents and the juvenile detailing the time, date, and location of the adjudication hearing.
Typical delinquent
Non-serious juveniles. The typical delinquent is non-serious.
Where a juvenile does not contest, or dispute, the petition or charges against them. Uncontested pleas are often a result of a plea bargain between the prosecution and a juvenile.
Upper age of jurisdiction
The maximum age in which the juvenile court has decision making power over a youth. The most common upper age of jurisdiction is seventeen in the United States. In these states, youth age eighteen are considered adults and must be tried in the adult court.