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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
View that women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men.
Masculinity Hypothesis
A theory of development that holds that children internalize gender scripts that reflect the gender-related social practices of the culture. Once internalized, these gender scripts predisposed the kids to construct a self-identity that is consistent with them.
Gender-Schema Theory
The view that low female crime and delinquency rates are a reflection of the leniency with which police treat female offenders.
Chivalry/Paternalism Hypothesis
Sexual experimentation in early adolescence.
Precocious Sexuality
Asserts that females are less delinquent than males because their social roles provide them with fewer opportunities to commit crime; as the roles of girls and women become more similar to those of boys and men so too will their crime patterns.
Liberal Feminism
Holds that gender inequality stems from unequal power of men and women become more similar to those of men and women and the subsequent exploitation of women and men; the cause of female delinquency originates with the onset of male supremacy and the efforts of males to control female sexuality.
Critical Feminism
Holds that gender differences in the delinquency rate are a function of class differences and economic conditions that influence the structure of family life.
Power-Control Theory
Husband and wife share power at home; daughters gain a kind of freedom similar to that of sons and their law-violating behaviors mirror those of their brothers.
Egalitarian Families
A family unit composed of parents and their children; this smaller family structure is subject to great stress due to the intense close contact between parents and children.
Nuclear Family
Home in which one or both parents are absent due to divorce or separation; children in such an environment may be prone to antisocial behavior.
Broken Home
Nuclear families that are the product of divorce and remarriage, blending one parent from each of two families and their combined children into one family unit.
Blended Families
An environment of discord and conflict within the family; children who grow up in dysfunctional homes often exhibit delinquent behaviors, having learned at a young age that aggression pays off.
Intra-family Violence
Families in which parents are able to integrate their children into the household unit while at the same time helping assert their individuality and regulate their own behavior.
Parental Efficacy
A condition that occurs when parents have such large families that their resources, such as time and money, are spread too thin, causing lack of familial support and control.
Resource Dilution
Non-accidental physical injury of children by their parent or guardian.
Battered Child Syndrome
Any physical, emotional or sexual trauma to a child, including neglecting to give proper care and attention, for which no reasonable explanation can be found.
Child Abuse
Passive neglect by a parent or guardian, depriving children of food, shelter, health care and love.
Mass murders in which a spouse and one or more children are slain.
A preliminary protective or temporary custody hearing in which the court will review the facts and determine whether removal of the child is justified and notify parents of the charges against them.
Advisement Hearing
The attorney for the social services agency presents an overview of the case and a plea bargain or negotiated settlement can be agreed upon in a consent decree.
Pretrial Conference
The social service agency presents its case plan and recommendations for care of the child and treatment of the parents, including incarceration and counseling or other treatment.
Disposition Hearing
Efforts of the courts to balance the parent's natural right to raise a child with the child's right to grow into adulthood without physical or emotional abuse.
Balancing-of-the-Interests Approach
Periodic meetings to determine whether the conditions of the case plan for an abused child are being met by the parents or guardians of the child.
Review Hearings
Out-of-court statements made by one person and recounted in court by another; such statements are generally not allowed as evidence except in child abuse cases wherein a child's statements to social workers, teachers, or police may be admissible.
Small groups of friends who share intimate knowledge and confidences.
Loosely organized groups who share interests and activities.
Aggressive kids who are either highly liked or intensely disliked by their peers and who are the ones most likely to become engaged in antisocial behavior.
Controversial Status Youth
Group of youths who collectively engage in delinquent behaviors.
Delinquent group that fills a crack in the social fabric and maintains standard group practices.
Interstitial Group
Inner-city areas of extreme poverty where the critical social control mechanisms have broken down.
Disorganized Neighborhood
Clusters of youth who, outwardly, seem unified but but actually have limited cohesion, impermanence, minimal consensus of norms, shifting membership, disturbed leadership and limited definitions of membership expectations.
A Latin word meaning "neighborhood".
Subgroup of same-aged youths in Hispanic gangs that remain together and have separate names and a unique identity in the gang.
Inscriptions or drawings made on a wall or structure and used by delinquents for gang messages and turf definitions.
Tossing or flashing gang signs in the presence of rivals, often escalating into a verbal or physical confrontation.
Member of a white american supremacist gang, identified by a shaved head and Nazi or Ku Klux Klan markings.
Stealing or assaulting someone to gain prestige in the neighborhood; often part of gang initiation rites.
Prestige Crimes
Social workers who go out into the community and establish close relationships with juvenile gangs with the goal of modifying gang behavior to conform to conventional behaviors and help gang members get jobs and educational opportunities.
Detached Street Workers
Involved in few delinquent activities and little dug use other than alcohol and marijuana - members more interested in social activities.
Social Gang
Concentrates on drug use and sales, but forgoes most delinquent behavior. Drug sales are designed to finance members' personal drug use.
Party Gang
Engages in serious delinquent behavior while avoiding drug dealing and usage. Drugs only used on social occasions.
Serious Delinquent Gang
Heavily involved in criminality. Drug use and sales are related to other criminal acts. Gang violence used to establish control over drug sales and territories. Gang is on verge of becoming formal criminal organization.
Organized Gang