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20 Cards in this Set

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What is the purpose of the Judicial Branch?
The judicial branch interprets the Constitution. The Judicial Branch declares laws from the Executive and Legislative Branches constitutional or unconstitutional. - Checks and balances
Explain the purpose of the Judiciary Act of 1789.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 established the Supreme Court, the highest court of the federal judiciary, and two levels of federal courts underneath it- the trials courts and the appellate courts. The Judiciary Act also established the federal court system, the federal district courts, and the Office of the Attorney General ((represents the US)).
What is the name of the highest court in the land?
The highest court in the land is the Supreme Court. Where the final decision is made
How long is the term of office for Supreme Court judge?
Supreme Court justices are appointed for life. The president is responsible for selecting justices; however, checks and balances require the Senate to confirm the appointment. Justices can be removed only through resignation or impeachment.
What kinds of cases are decided in federal courts? (List four)!
Cases that require an interpretation of the Constitution. (when the constitution is in question, they refer to the 27 commandments.) Cases involving the United States, a state, or its citizens. Cases involving federal laws and treaties. Cases that concern a citizen of a foreign nation.
The Constitution gives a very specific definition for the crime of treason. What is that definition?
Treason is defined as someone or a group who wages wars against the US or provides information that could be used against the United States.
What is the minimum number of witnesses that must come forward to convict a person of treason?
The maximum number of witnesses is two.
Define “Corruption of Blood”.
Punishing the family of a person who has committed treason. It is forbidden by the constitution.
How many Justice on the supreme court.
9 members, its odd because the end results are final, so it wont end in a tie. Chief Justice- presides over the other eight members. He does vote. Delivers the oath of office for President Bush’s inauguration.
What happened in the Dred Scott Case?
Dr. John Emerson was an army surgeon. He travled through many different states with his slave Dred Scott, some states were free states, while Dred Scott was living there he was free and not a slave, Dr. Emerson would not let him go. (northwest Territory)
What happened in the Plessy v. Ferguson Case?
Homer Plessy took a seat in a white person's seat on the railroad car, it was reserved for whites under Louisiana.
What happened in Brown v. Board of Education Case?
Oliver Brown tried to sign his daughter up for an all white girls school because it was closer for her to walk then the black all girls school.
What happened in Miranda v. Arizona?
Ernesto Miranda was arrest as a suspect in a kidnapping and rape case. He was then asked many questions, never being told that the suspect has the right to remain silent. He did not know he had the right to a lawyer.
Future Impact on American History from the Miranda v. Arizona Case
The court stressed to law enforcement agencies what must be explained to each person accused of a crime:
#1 A person has a right to remain silent when being questioned. #2 An accused person has a right to a lawyer being present during questioning.
#3 An accused person has a right to a lawyer even if that person cannot afford one.
Today, it is standard police practice to read “Miranda Warning” to a suspect at the time of arrest.
What happened in Gideon v. Wainwright case?
Courts ruling in a unanimous opinion, the court held the Gideon had a right to be presented by a court appointed attorney. The found that the Sixth Amendment’s guarantee of counsel was a fundamental right, essential to a fair trial. The court stats that Mr. Gideon had the right to a lawyer because of the 14th amendments rule ordering states to protect each individuals rights to due process of the law. The court ordered a new trail and a state-appointed lawyer for Mr. Gideon. He was eventually found not guilty.
Future impact from Gideon v. Wainwright
A fair trial for a poor defendant could not be guaranteed without the assistance of counsel-6th amendment. Gideon v. Wainwright extended the 14th amendment due process rule to all individuals accused of serious crimes, whether on federal or state charges. The decision greatly expanded the power of the 14th amendments to protect individual’s rights against abuses by both the federal and state officials.
What Happened in Griwold v. Connecticut Case?
In the Griswold v. Connecticut case, Griswold was the Executive Director of the Planned Parenthood League of/in Connecticut. He was giving information, instructions and medical advice to married couples on birth control. He was then convicted by Connecticut of criminalized provision of counseling.
Future Impact foom Gideon v. Wainwright case
1st,4th,and 9th amendment states every citizen in the United States has a right to their privacy.
What happened in Roe v. Wade?
Roe was unable to obtain a legal abortion in Texas. She eventfully opted to have the child, and gave it up for adoption. Two lawyers decided to challenge the constitutionality of the Texas law, aiming to establish a new constitutional right allowing women to control their own bodies. Roe becomes the lead plaintiff in their class-action lawsuit, and they represented her.
What is the future impact from Roe. v Wade
This decision gave a woman total control over her pregnancy during the first trimester and defined different levels of state interest for the second and third trimesters. The laws of 46 states were affected by the Court’s ruling.