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148 Cards in this Set

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subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma
tuberous sclerosis
non-enveloped viruses
PAPA please PIC ADEN of PARVO CALICO REOS
helical capsid viruses
the RABID PARAmedic and ORTHOpedist BUNYAn FILled the ARENA with CORONA
circular genome virus
ABP: Arena, Bunya, Papova
migratory skin rash
glucagonoma
5 p's of porphyria
painful abdomen, pink urine, precipitated by drugs, polyneuropathy, psychological disturbances
diaphragm
septum transversum, pleuroperitoneal folds, body wall, dorsal mesentary of esophagus; often get hernia due to failure of the pleuroperitoneal membranes to develop properly
informed consent exceptions
emergency, waiver by patient, patient is incompetent, therapeutic privilege
myxedema with thyroid
due to longstanding hypothyroidism in adults, high TSH, low T4, very general term that can result from many causes of hypothyroidism
hashimoto's biopsy findings
infilatration with lymphocytes, macros, plasmas, germinal center formation
subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (de quervian) biopsy
causes hyperthyroidism but can cause transiet hypothyroidism, frequently occurs after a viral infection, may experience fever nd painful enlargement of the thyroid, usually abates in 6-8 weeks biopsy = disruption of thyroid follicles, neutrophilic infiltrate, cellular aggregate, multinucleated giant cells
subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis
can cause transient hyperthyroidism but is generally painless
leydig cell tumor
gynecomastia, golden-brown tumor, large uniform cells, rod-shaped crystals
sertoli cell tumors
cord-like structures resemblin seminiferous tubules
polyadenylation recognition sequence
AAUAAA
splicing
3' end of the intron has a conserved AG, 5' is GT
streptococcus bovis
bacteremia and endocarditis, distinguished by having a cell wall carbohydrate composed of glycerol teichoic acid
bile solubility
strep pneumo is soluble, strep viridans is not
pyrrolidinyl arylamidase positive
group D and group A strep
CAMP test positive
group B
nerve in tonsillar fossa
glossopharyngeal nerve
aldesleukin
recombinant IL2
levamisole
enhances cell mediated immunity and is used in concert with 5FU in colorectal cancer
palivizumab
mAb against fusion protein of RSV
formation of the pancreas
ventral pancreatic bud normally rotates around duodenum to fuse with dorsal bud - form from the second part of duodenum, normally around the right side
annular pancreas formation
ventral bud rotating around the right and left sides of the second part of the duodenum
sole LDL elevation
type 2a
sole chylomicron elevation
type 1
increased LDL and TG and VLDL
type 2b
increased TG and chylomicron rem
type 3
increased TG and VLDL and chylo
type 5
peak suystolic pressure of ventricles vs aorta
2-3 mmhg higher in the ventricles
NE and Epi
NE is precursor
tyrosine stuff
tyrosine to thyroxine and dopa, dopa to melanin and dopamine
sibutramine
MAOI that also blocks serotonin and NE reuptake that increases energy expenditure and decreases appetite
embryology of syringomyelia
progressive vacitation of the central canal of the spinal cord
common variable immunodeficiency
caused by abnormal B-cell differentiation, decreased numbers of plasma cells and low Ig from all classes; distinguished from agammaglobulinemia (Bruton) by the normal numbers of B cells in the blood and lymphoid organs, in Bruton B cell maturation stops after rearrangment of heavy chains so b cells in the bloodstream are lower
irinotecan
topo I inhibitor, inhibits acetylcholinesterase --> diarrhea, also see neutropenia
gemcitabine
pyrimidine analog for first line therapy with pancreatic ovarian dna NSCLC
dupuytren contracture
contracture of palmar fascia caused by interraction of myofibroblasts with collagen fibrils of the fascia; myofibroblsts play a role in the wound healing process
locked in syndrome
completely awake and cognitavely intact with no abnormality of consciousness, they are unable to move extremeties and most of face, limited to vertical eye movements or blinking, large lesions of brainstem particularly base of pons such as with thrombotic stroke to basilar artery
genetic allotypes markers on Ig molecules
can be helpful in paternity cases Ig1 Ig2 Ig3 heavy chains,
idiotypes
response to specific antigens
low T3 syndrome
"euthyroid sick syndrome" occurs with systemic illnesses or problems, characterised by decreased in 5'-monodeiodinase activity in peripheral tissues leading to decreased T4-->T3 conversion, also see increased rT3 since 5'-monoiodo converts rT3 to inactive 3.3'-diiodothyronine
AMLs
M1
acute myelocytic without differentiation
M2
acute myelocytic with differentiation, may see eosinophils
M3
APML
M4
myelomonocytic
M5
acute myeloblastic leukemia (monocytic), detect with fluoride-sensitive esterase reaction
M6
erythrocytic
M7
AMKL
pseudohyphae
vaginal candidiasis
macroconidia
histo form
arthroconidia
ringworm (tinea)
carpal tunnel borders
flexor retinaculum anteriorly, carpal bones posteriorly
carpal tunnel contents
4 tendons of flexor dig super, 4 tendons of flexor dig profundus, 1 tendon from flexor pollicus longus, median nerve
25%
percentage of patients with ischemic heart diesease that present with sudden death
terbutaline
beta 2 agonist for acute asthma
immunosuppressive of choice for liver transplant
tacrolimus
viral packaging inhibited by
rifampin
early viral protein synthesis inhibited by
fomivirsen
ifn alpha major side effect
pancytopenia
non-nucleoside inhibitors
never ever deliver nucleosides: vevirapine, efavirenz, delavirdine
bacitracin
inhibits cell wall by blocking peptidoglycan synthesis
HIV med to decrease risk of maternal-fetal trans
zidovudine (AZT)
inactivation of drugs by phosphorylation
aminoglycosides
inactiavation by altering ribosome binding site
tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolides
active efflux for resistance
tetracyclines
reduced permeability for resistance
macrolides
first line tx of non MR Staph aureus
cefazolin (first generation cephalo)
filgrastim vs argramostim
G-CSF vs GM-CSF
abnormal phosphorylation of tau
neurofibrillary tangles (intracytoplasmic inclusions) known as paired helical fragments PHFs
abnormal degradation of APP
formation of Abeta amyloid
hypnopompic hallucination
hallucination upon waking
hypnagogic hallucination
hallucination upon going to sleep
grief vs depression
marked funcitonal impairment after a few months
CCK
acts via vagal afferent pathways to stimulate somatostatin inhibition of gastric acid secretion, block CCK--> increased gastric acid secretion, stimulates pancreatic amylase, stimulated pancreatic lipase
werdnig hoffman
spinal muscle atrophy type I, disease of anterior horn cells, see lower motor neuron disease (such as fibrillation potentials on EMG) and fasciculations, die after a year
visualization of chlamydia in cells
iodine, Giemsa, or fluorescent Ab stains
pleomorphic gram negative rods
hemophilus dureyi, causes chancroid
chancroid is painful
chancre is not (primary syphils)
centriacinar emphysema
tobacco and coal dust
panacinar emphysema
alpha 1 antitrypsin
paraseptal emphysema
associated with scaring, may lead to spontaneous pneumothorax
splenectomized patients have low
IgG2 and IgM leading to susceptibility with encapsulated organisms
reason why histo is not communicable person to person
because it is intracellular
alpha actinin
bindds actin microfilaments in networks
kinesin
moves towards the plus end
dynein
moves toward miuns end
titin
sarcomere structure of striated muscle
chlorambucil
nitrogen mustard (subcategory of alkylating agent) used for the treatment of CLL and ovarian carcinoma and hodgkins and other lymphomas
lateral nucleus of hypothalamus
destruction results in starvation
suprachiasmatic
gets input from the retina and secretes melotonin for circadian rhythms
first site of change in duchenne's
hips
first site of change in myotonic dystrophy
ankly
first site of change in FSH dystrophy
facial and jaw
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia findings
local bony defects containing unmineralized whorls of connective tissue
stop codons
UAA, UAG, UGA
converge but cant adduct eye on lateral gaze
internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) from lesion to MLF
sturma ovarii
monodermal teratoma results in increased thyroid hormone and resultant decrese in TSH
RNA pol I
rRNA
RNA pol II
mRNA, snRNA, miRNA
RNA pol III
tRNA
laron dwarfism
congenital absence of growth hormone receptors, since growth hormone binding protein is the extracellular portion of the receptor, see low levels of GHBP, get low concentration of IGF-1 because there are no GH receptors on hepatocytes
nystatin mechanism of action
like amphotericin B, to punch holes in the membrane
terbinafine MOA
blocks ergosterol synthesis
flucytosine MOA
interferes with thymidylate synthetase
inulin measures
extracellular fluid volume
interstitial volume equals
ECF volume - plasma volume
marker of primitive lymphocytic cells
terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt) the enzyme that is active during VDJ rearrangement of the heavy chain
presence of cytoplasmic mu chains
implies successful VDJ heavy chain rearrangement
type II antiarrhythmic
decreases SA node automaticity, increase AV nodal refractoriness, and decreases AV nodal conduction velocity
lidocaine indication
treatment of acute management of ventricular arrhythmias that occur during periods of cardiac ischemia
pseudomonas alpha toxin
inhibits protein synthesis by acting on EF2 such as with diphtheria toxin, pseudomonas toxin targets liver, diphtheria toxin targets neurons and heart
diabetic foot ulcer bacteria
pseudomonas
anthrax toxin
adenylate cyclase causes fluid loss from cells
cholera toxin
increases adenylate cyclase activity by ribosylation of GTP-binding protein
E coli labile toxin
similar to cholera toxin
pertussis toxin
fluid loss by Gi ribosylation
strep erythrogenic toxin
similar to diphtheria via increased cytokines
activates PDH
increased pyruvate concentration
occludin
transmembrane linker protein in tight juction that separate apical from basolateral membranes and apical fluid from interstitial fluid but do not provide strong attachments
tumor like submucosal nodules of the tongue
seen in some cases of amyloidosis which more commonly affects the intestines than other places in the GI tract
type II Arnold-Chiari malformatoin
parts of hinbrain, cerebellar vermis, and fourth ventricle herniate into the foramen, commonly associated with meningomyeloceles
porencephaly
severe cleft in brain that allows the ventricles to communicate with the subarachnoid space
most common type of ASD
ostium secundum type
ASD in downs
ostium primum type - often includes MV or TV malformations and result in left to right shunts with late cyanosis
antiarrhythmic to decrease conduction through AV node
digoxin (indicated for treatment of atrial fibrillation especially with elevated ventricular rate)
quinidine autonomic side effect
anticholinergic effect that would increase AV conduction velocity, usually is indicated for conversion of Afib/flutter
brain structures
head to toe: telencephalon (verebral hemispheres and BG and lateral ventricles), diencephalon (thalamus et al), mesencephalon (midbrain), metencephalon (pons and cerebellum), myelencephalon (medulla and fourth ventricle),
teratogenicity of mumps
aqueductal stenosis causing proximal ventricular enlargment and noncommunicating hydrocephalus, cerebral aqueduct is in the midbrain (mesencephalon)
X linked dominant disease
hypophosphatemic rickets: abnormal regulation of vit D3 metabolism and defects in renal tubular phosphate transport, growth retard, osteomalacia, rickets
penicillamine
copper poisoning
loracarbef
second gen cephalo for gram positive and negative
wiskott aldridge comorbidity
12% chance of developing NHL
brush border in kidney
proximal tubule
wound contraction
myofibroblasts
poxvirus
replicates in cytoplasm so much have its own DNA dependent RNA polymerase, cause of molluscum contagiosum
guarnieri bodies
intracytoplasmic factories for DNA replication
median entry into forearm
between the two heads of the pronator teres
polymerase restricted to nuleolus
pol I for rRNA transcription
intercostal space structures
from top to bottom: vein, artery, nerve (VAN drives down)
cushing disease from pituitary vs ectopic tumor
ectopic tumor ACTH secretion not usually depressed by dexamethasone administration
ergotamine
partial agonist/antagonist and tryptaminergic, dopaminergic, and alpha-adrenergic receptors, treatment of vascular headaches
methylsergide
blocks the action of serotonin and used for prevention of vascular headaches
HACEK bacteria
cause endocarditis: haemophilus aphrophilus, actinobacillus, cardiobacerium, Eikenella, Kingella