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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Classic signs for cystitis
Suprapubic tenderness
Dysuria
Frequency
Urgency
Location of initial pain in appendicitis
Periumbilical
3 enteric organisms that ferment lactose
E. coli
Enterobacter
Klebsiella
Mottling of tooth enamel
Tetracyclines side effect when used in children under 8 or in pregnant women
Verruca vulgaris
Common wart
Benign papilloma
HPV
Glomerulonephritis
Findings?
Hematuria
Red cell casts
Oliguria
Azotemia
Hypertension
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Severe lower abdominal pain
Fever
Purulent cervical discharge
Cervical motion tenderness
Fluoroquinolones
Ciprofloxacin
Norfloxacin
Moxifloxacin
Fluoroquinolones MoA
Inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II)
Fluoroquinolones indications
Gram-negative rods of urinary and gi tracts
Fluoroquinolones toxicities
Damage to cartilage in fetus and children
Tendonitis and tendon rupture in adults
1st generation cephalosporins agents and clinical use
Cefazolin
Cephalexin

Gram-Positive cocci:
Proteus mirabilis
E. coli
Klebsiella penumoniae

PEcK
2nd generation cephalosporins agents and clinical use
Agents:
Cefoxitin
Cefaclor
Cefuroxime

Use: Gram-positive cocci
Haemophilus influenzae
Enterobacter aerogenes
Neisseria spp
Proteus mirabilis
E. coli
K. pneumoniae
Serratia marcescens

HEN PEcKS
3rd generation cephalosporins agents and clinical use
Ceftriaxone
Cefotaxime
Ceftazidime

Use: Gram-negative resistant to other B-lactams; meningitis
4th generation cephalosporins agents and clinical use
Cefepime
Cefpiramide

Incr activity against Pseudomonas and gram-positive organisms
Hairy leukoplakia
Fuzzy white tongue in some AIDS patients
Which anemia does lead toxicity lead to?
Microcytic Hypochromic

Resembles iron deficiency anemia
Which enzymes does lead interfere with in the synthesis of heme?
Ferrochelatase
RBC appearance in hereditary spherocytosis
Small spheres
Lack biconcave shape
Basophilic stippling
Precipitated ribosomes and mitochondria

Impaired maturation in the bone marrow

Roudn, dark-blue granules in RBCs
Acanthocytes
Star-like RBCs
Irregular spaced projections
Abetalipoproteinemia
Some liver diseases
Auer rods
Elongated, bluish-red rods
Fused lysosomal granules
Found in the cytoplasm of cells in the myelocytic and monoblastic lines
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Hairy cells
Hairy cell leukemia
White cells with fine, irregular pseudopods, and immature nuclear features
Sulfasalazine clinical use
Rheumatoid arthritis
Tolbutamide
Sulfonylurea
Oral hypoglycemic agent
Most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults
Acoustic neuroma (schwanoma)
Cholesteatomas
Epidermoid inclusion cysts
Middle ear and petrous apex
Intermittent drainage
Conductive hearing loss
Air conduction vs bone conduction
Normal
Normal:
Air conduction is greater than bone conduction
Sensorineural hearing loss:
Air conduction vs bone conduction
Air conduction is greater than bone conduction, both will be qualitatively decreased
Weber test
In unilateral sensorineural hearing loss the sound is softer on the affected side and is loder (localized) to the unaffected ear
Antibiotic block protein synthesis at 30S riborsomal subunit
Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines
Antibiotics that block protein synthesis at 50S ribosomal subunit
Chloramphenicol
Clindamycin
Lincomycin
Linezolid
Erythromycin/Macrolides
Streptogramins (Quinupristin, dalfopristin)
Antibiotic block DNA topoisomerases
Quinolones
Protein synthesis inhibitors
30S inhibitors
Aminoglycosides: (streptomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin)[bactericidal]

Tetracyclines [bacteriostatic]

50S inhibitors
Chloramphenicol [bacteriostatic]
Erythromycin [bacteriostatic]
Lincomycin [bacteriostatic]
cLindamycin [bacteriostatic]

buy AT 30, CELL at 50
V/Q ---> 0 = ?
Airway obstruction (shunt)
V/Q ---> infinity = ?
Blood flow obstruction (physiologic dead space)
V/Q mismatch
Ideally, ventilation is matched to perfusion (V/Q = 1) in order for adequet gas exchange
V/Q at the apex of the lungs
V/Q = 3 (wasted ventilation)
V/Q at the base of the lungs
V/Q = 0.6 (wasted perfusion)
V/Q
Apex vs Base of the lungs
Both are greater at the base of the lungs
Spherocytosis treatment
Splenectomy
Class IA antiarrhythmic agents
Quinidine
Amiodarone
Procainamide
Disopyramid
Class IA antiarrhythmic effect
Increase AP duration
Increase effective refractory period (ERP)
Increase QT interval

Affect both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias
Class IB antiarrhythmic agents
Lidocaine
Mexiletine
Tocainide
Class IB antiarrhythmic agents effect
Decrease AP duration
Affect ischemic or depolarized Purkinje and ventricular tissue
Class IB antiarrhythmic agents use
Acute ventricular arrhythmias (especially post-MI) and in digitalis-induced arrhythmias
Class IA antiarrhythmic agents toxicity
Quinidine:
Cinchonism (headache, tinnitus)
Thrombocytopenia, Torsades de pointes (due to increased QT interval)

Procainamide:
Reversible SLE-like syndrome
Class IC antiarrhythmic agents
Flecainide
Encainide
Propafenone
Class IC antiarrhythmic effect
No effect on AP duration
V-tachs that progress to VF and in intractible SVT
Class IC antiarrhythmic agents use
Last resort in refractory tachyarrhythmias
Class IC antiarrhythmic agents toxicity
Proarrhythmic (especially post-MI [contraindicated])