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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bilateral anorchia
vanishing testes syndrome - normal external genetalia but no mullerian structures (resorption of testes before birth)
methimazole and PTU SE
agranulocytosis, halt meds and start rHg-CSF
salt secreted
95% of that ingested
internal capsule
receives blood from lenticulostriate arteries, prone to rupture in HTN
int capsule anterior limb
fronto pontine fibers
int capsule genu
corticobulbar fibers
int capsule post limb
corticospinal fibers to contralateral arm and leg
nitroprusside cyanide test
cystinuria --> renal staghorn radioopaque stones, alkanize urine
familial iminoglycinuria
inpared renal tubular resorptino of proline, hydroxyproline, glycine
hypophosphatemic rickets
decreased PT reabsorption of phosphate and bony abnormalities
chediak higashi Dx
large inclusions in all nucleated blood cells
alpha granules
growth factors, PF4, thrombospondin and fibronectin, deficiency --> grey platelet syndrome
dense granules
ADP and ATP, Ca, histamine, serotonin, epinephrine
CGD tests
nitroblud tetrazolium negative or DHR flow cytomoetry
myeloperoxidase deficiency
normal enzyme test, generally clinically silent, may get candida in diabetics
liver findings:
alcohol
fatty change, mallory bodies (eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions)
a1 antitrypsin def
PAS positive cytoplasmic granules
Hep A
think daycare and kids
wilsons
copper in liver and keyser fleisher rings
aminoglycoside mechanism of action
misreading at translation initiation
chloramphenicol
inhibits ribosomal peptidyl transferase
piroxicam
think RA treatment with low risk of GI probs and 50 hr half-life
allantois
endodermal diverticulum of the yolk sac, becomes part of urogenital sinus
mesonephros
embryonic kidney
urogenital ridge
intermediate mesoderm give rise to the embryonic and adult kidneys and gonads
most common site for volvus in elderly
sigmoid colon (poorly supported)
wood tick transmits
rickettsia rickettsiae and francisell tularenis
ALS
lower motor neurons in anterior horn, UMN in motor area of cerebral cortex
cerebellar damage in
spinocerebellar degenerative diseases like friedrichs ataxia and olivopontocerebellar atrophy (both have ataxia as prominent sx)
globus pallidus lost in
striatonigral degeneration (resembles parkinsons)
selective IgA deficiency
most common hereditary immunodeficiency, failure of heavy chain switching
hyper IgM
CD40 ligand mutation
foramen ovale
mandibular nerver may be injured by fracture
superior orbital fissure
abducens, ophtalmic division of trigeminal
foramen rotundum
maxillary division of the mandibular nerve
internal auditory meatus
chordae tympani
friedrich's ataxia
degeneration of DRG and oters presents with ataxia, dysarthria, loss of highly discriminatory sensory modalities
pontine nuclei
afferents from cerebral cortex to pons, pons to cerebellar cortex via the middle cerebellar peduncles
telomerase
RNA dependent DNA polymerase (acts like a reverse transcriptase) and is thus inhibited by lamivudine and stavudine
alprostadil
PGE1 analog to maintain a patent ductus arteriosus
miglitol
alpha glucosidase inhibitor
repaglinide
non-sulfonylurea moiety of glyburide
DMD spontaneous arising
recombinatino event in the dystrophin gene that gave rise to a frameshift mutation leading to an untraslatable mRNA
ATP from one glucose in anaerobic oxidation
2
ursodiol
dissolves cholesterol gallstones in some patients
octreotide
somatostatin analogue used to treat diarrhea in endocirne disorders and variceal bleeding and acromegaly
tizanidine
spasmolytic used for diseases such as cerbral palsy, MS, stroke
first pharyngeal cleft
external ear canal
palatoglossal/pharyngeal folds
glossal in front
caffeine medical use
for infants for treatment of apnea of prematurity and adjuvant for analgesic formulations
biceps tendon origin
supraglenoid tubercle above the glenoid fossa of the scapula and passes into the bicipital groove between the greater and lesser tuberosities of the humerus
papillary necrosis etiology
DM, analgesic abuse, UT obstruction, sickle cell disease
thromboemboli to the kidney
result in wedge shaped infarcts and pale coagulative necrosis of the cortex
toxin producing e coli
enterohemorrhagic (shiga-like toxin causing bloody diarrhea and HUS), enterotoxigenic (activated intestinal adenylate or guanylate cyclase leading to cAMP overproduction and diarrhea)
valacyclovir
used to treat HSV but not in immunocompromised becaues it can be associated with TTP-HUS which seem to occur in this population and can be fatal
bacteria associated with human bites
elkenella corrodens
IVDU with osteomyelitis
pseudomonas and candida
sickle cell osteomyelitis
salmonella
niridazole
treatment of dracunculus medinensis which causes skin ulceration and inflammation
mediator of complement and shock in gram negative bacteremia
C3a
TNF-alpha
released by macrophages, in response to endotoxin, causes fever an dhemorrhagic tissue necrosis
hageman factor in shock
endotoxin can directly activate it leading to coag cascade and DIC
nitric oxide in shock
released by macrophages activated by endotoxin causes hypotension
IL-1 in shock
realeased by macrophages causes fever
rubella congenital infection
PDA, pulmonary stenosis, cataracts, microcephaly, deafness
hepatitis G
transmissible flavivirus, not been shown to cause liver disease
HBcAg
Positive during the window period
AIDS
CD4 cell count < 200/mm3 and one or more defining opportunistic infections
amebas with ingested RBCs
entamoeba histolytics
opportunistic infections and cell counts
<400: Herpes simplex and zoster oral thrush; <200 cryptococcal meningitis; <100 toxoplasmosis; <50 MAI
MAI
chronic wasting, prophylaxis is with azithromycin