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99 Cards in this Set

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oocyte arrested / ovum arrested
prophase / metaphase
warfarin SE
may cuse necrosis of skin bw third and tenth day of therapy, depletion of protein C leads to hypercoaguability in skin
multiple drug resistance plasmids
transposons
pengastrin-stimulated calcitonin secretion
marker for medullary carcinoma of thyroid in MEN II
diphenoxylate
opioid receptor for diarrhea, combined with atropine to decrease abuse potential
"I" antigen
antigen in mycoplasma IgM cold agglutination
macrolides
reversibly bind to 50S subunit
lincosamides (clindamycin)
irreversibly bind to 50s subunit
superior gluteal nerve
innervates gluteus medius and minimus which allow people to maintain balance with one foot on the ground
first and second sacral nerves
piriformis innfervation (lateral rotator of thigh and hip)
type I Arnold-Chiari malformation
cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum, frequently asymptomatic and incidental autopsy finding
Erb palsy in infants
C5-C6, baby delivered in breech position, loss of abductors and external rotators, loss of flexion and supinatino at the biceps causes the phenotype
phenotype of pemphigus vuglaris versus bullous pemphigoid
PV: widespread painful blisters on skin and oropharynx BP: widespread blistering with pruritis sparing the oral mucosa
s pneumo acquisition of penicillin resistance
transformation
rapid clinical course of dementia and neuro probs
creutzfeld-jacob disease
dementia with lewy bodies
lewy bodies in the SN, limbic cortex, subcortical nuclei (like basal nucleus of meynert)
binswanger dz
rarefaction of cerebral white matter caused by HTN-related arteriolosclerosis
PSA usefulness
doesn’t necessarily distinguish BPH from cancer, when cancer is known use to follow tumor progression
urogenital sinus male
urinary bladder, prostatic urethra, prostate, membranous urethra, bulbourethral glands, penile urethra, littre's glands
urogenital sinus female
urinary bladder, urethra, urethral glands, paraurethral glands, vestibule of vagina, greater vestibular glands
corpus spongiosum
singular structure that surrounds the urethra
corpus cavernosum
paired structure superior to corpus spongiosum
vascular rarefaction
loss of capillaries and other blood vessels in muscle with prolongued low metabolic rate (as in a cast)
carmustine
alkylating agent commonly used in hodgkins disase tx most notable SE are delayed myelosuppression and pulmonary toxicity
cubital tunnel syndrome
paresthesias and numbness in ulnar side due to ulnar compression
monosodium urate crystals (gout)
needle-shaped, yellow when parallel to polarizer (negatively birefringent), blue when perpendicular to polarizer
calcium pyrophosphate crystals (pseudogout)
rhomboid shaped, blue when parallel (positively birefringent), and yellow when perpendicular
positively birefringent
"positively parallel blue"
brucella
granulomatous disease, associated with cattle, septic abortion, undulant fevers, can cuase endocarditis (aortic valve), petechiae, visual blurring
glycocalyx
covers microvilli to prevent trauma
basal and reticular lamina
components fo the basement membrane
endemic typhus
rickettsia typhi - feces of the rat flea, rat reservoir
epidemic typhus
tickettsia prowazaki - body louse, humans and flying squirrel reservoir
Q fever
coxiella burnetti - acquired by inhalation
rocky mountain spotted fever
rickettsia rickettsi - tick transfer, tick is reservoir
scrub typhus
rickettsia tsutsugamushi - southeast asia, mites transmit, mites and rodents are reservoirs
ITP treatment
immunosuppressants and splenectomy
chorion and amnion
chorion forms before the amnion, so cant have more chorions than amnions, but monochorion with monoamnion or diamnion is possible in identicle twins, having two chorions necessitates two amnions: dichorionic diamnionic is either identical or fraternal twins: fraternal twins must be dichorionic
cicumvallate placenta
extrachorial portion outside insertion of amnionic membranes creating a circumferential groove (vallum), no clinical significance
bipartit placenta
composed of two equal segments, no clinical significance
accelerated idioventricular rhythm
latent pacemaker in ventricles --> accelerated regular rate, unusual QRS, no related p waves
accelerated junctional rhythm
P waves inverted and may be anywhere within regular QRS complexes which occur regularly at rate 60-150
premature ventricular contraction
ectopic ventricular pacemaker inserts an ectopic beat, wide, bizarre QRS
vtach
wide and bizarre but recognizable QRS complexes
vfib tx
CPR, defib, IV and intracardiac drugs: epinephrine, lidocaine, procainamide
PPD
composed of tuberculin (outer surface protein) and mycolic acid of TB
order of transfer of Hfr
from OriT to tra, closest to oriT (furthest from tra) most likely to be transferred
HPV infects which layer
the bsal layer and causes warts and increasing number of prickle cells, causing skin thickening and epithelial spikes to form
HPV in skin
infection at basal, replication in spinosum, maturation in granulosum and lucidum, release from corneum
ceramide
lipid precursor to which sugars are added to form gangliosides and galactocerebrosides
dermatan sulfate
glycosaminoglycan involved in formation of proteoglycans
hyaluronic acid
glycosaminoglycan involved in formation of proteoglycans
aneurysm of aortic root
syphilis
paramyxovirus avoidance of Ab
via spread from cell to cell via syncytia formation
OD on TCA risk
arrhythmia
metastatic calcification
think hypercalcemia: hyperparathyroid/thyroidism, addisons disease, chronic renal failur, bone destruction (leukemia, mets, MM)
gonnococcus and joints
monoarticular acute onset arthritis, may see disseminated symptoms, may see skin lesions, may also see migratory arthralgia and tenosynovitis
tinea corporis
ring worm ,often contracted from playing with a cat, treat with an antifungal (azole) cream
doxepin
antipruritic cream
mupirocin
anti-infective agent for topical treatment of impetigo
obstructive sleep apnea tx
adenotonsillectomy because of adenotonsillar hypertrophy
triazolam (halcion)
combination with behavioral therapy for insomnia
often cause acanthosis nigricans
adenocarcinomas of chest or abdomen
posterior herniation of the nucleus pulposus
most common type of herniation, results in occulsion of intervertebral foramen, spinal nerve between C4 and C5 is C5 spinal nerve
anterior and posterior rami
found lateral to intervertebral foramina
sarcoma botyroides
malignant tumor affects kids usually and is a grape like mass that protrudes from the vagina, neoplastic cells are of skeletal muscle origin
splenorenal ligament
connects spleen to posterior abdominal wall and contains splenic artery and vein
closed and open angle glaucoma
in closed angle claucoma have increased IOP secondary to closure of a preexisting narrow anterior chamber angle,closed angle tx: single dose of acetazolamid followed by oral dose, for open angle tx: CA inhibitor, epinephrine, latanopros (prostaglandin F2), timolol
femoral ring
bounded medially by lacunar ligament and femoral vein laterally, by pubis posteriorly and inguinal ligament anteriorly
rib innervation
intercostal nerve (anterior ramus of the thoracic spinal nerve) after passing angle of the rib it occupies the lower portion of the rib in the costal groove, so inject anesthetic medial to the angle of the rib
rhabdomyoma
associated with tuberous sclerosis
Hfe gene in hemochrom
tightly linked to HLA A3
virilization in male fetus
hCG causes testosterone release from leydig cells for first half of pregnancy, in second half LH from the fetal pituitary is required for continued growth
anovulation
can be caused by lack of progesterone response to unchecked estrogen, admin and withdrawal of progesterone to check
from face to brain
cavernous sinus as with mucor (think diabetics)
left sided neglect
most often due to parietal lobe damage on the right side
bence jones proteins
kappa light chains
ostium secundum ASD
most common, symptoms absent until later on, systolic ejection murmur from increased right sided volumes, fixed splitting
AV septum
physical separation of the two AV valves, lack of this causes endocardial cushion defects
septum primum
begins septation of the atria with downward growth, the orifice that remains is the ostium primum
ostium secundum
forms in the septum primum after the endocardial cushions have fused with the septum primum
septum secundum
grows downwward and together with the flap of the ostium primum forms the foramen ovale
weak area of internal inguinal ring
transversalis fascia which forms the posterior wall of the inguinal canal with the conjoined tendon
benign essential tremor tx
propranalol (any non-selective beta blocker)
nucleotide excision repair
inability to repair thymine dimers
metastatic potential of carcinoid
site and size (appendix and cecum rarely metastasize to the liver), those of the stomach, ileum, and colon more likely, esp if greater than 2cm in diameter
growth on mannitol
staph aureus
allantois
contributes to umbilical cord and placenta
cloacal membrane
persistance causes imperforate anus (covers hindgut)
notochord
nucleus pulposis
prechordal plate
buccopharyngeal membrane (cranial end of foregut)
docusate (Colace)
stool softener
trihexylphenidyl
muscarinic antagonist used in parkinsons - get anticholinergic side effects
menke's disease
depigmented lustless hair, facial ocular vascular and cerebral manifestations (like seizures), copper deficiency similar to wilsons
chromosome 15 del
prader willi (paternal deletion) or angelman (maternal deletion)
treatment of choice for HACEK
ceftriaxone: SE: eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, leukopenia
erythema multiforme and Stevens johnson pathog
immune complex deposition at the dermal blood vessels
clubbing and hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy
associated with bronchogenic carcinoma, benign mesothelioma, and diaphragmatic neurilemmoma
klinefelters
hyperplastic low functioning leydig cells cause decreased testosterone and subsequently increased LH which in turn causes increased estrogen secretion