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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List muscles of inspiration.
Diaphragm, external intercostal, sterncleidomastoid, scalenus, trapezius, major and minor pectoralis, levator scapulae, major and minor rhomboideus
List muscles of expiration
Internal intercostals, transversus thoracis, subcoastal, posterior inferior serratus, latissimus dorsi, internal, transverse and external oblique abdominis, quadratus lumborum
True or False. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the vertical dimensions of the thorax.
True
True or False. Contraction of the muscles of expiration increases the volume of the thorax.
False
What instrument is used to measure respiratory volumes, flow and capacities?
Spirometer
What instrument is used to measure differences in air pressures?
Manometer
Define Tidal Volume.
Tidal Volume is the volume of air exchanged in one cycle of respiration.
Define Vital Capacity
Vital Capacity is the total volume of air that can be inspired after a maximal expiration
True or False. In normal, healthy individuals, intrapleural pressure remains negative at all times.
True
What is ``Checking Action?``
Checking Action is the impedance of the flow of air out of inflated lungs by the muscles of inspiration. This action is important because it helps maintain the constant flow of air through the vocal tract and allows the individual to accurately control the pressure beneath the vocal folds that have been closed for phonation.
List the cartilages of the larynx?
cricoid, thyroid, epiglottis, arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform cartilages.
Which cartilage is shaped like a signet ring?
Cricoid cartilage
Which muscle is responsible for lengthening the vocal folds (medial compression and adduction)?
Lateral Cricoarytenoids Muscle
(LCM)
Which muscle is responsible for closing (abducting) the vocal folds?
Transverse Arytenoid Muscle (TAM)
Which muscle is the sole abductor (opening) of vocal folds and what cranial nerve innervates it?
Posterior Cricoarytenoid Muscle (PCM).It is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve of cranial nerve X
Which muscles are vocal fold tensors?
Cricothyroid muscle and thyrovocalis muscle
Which muscles relaxes the vocal folds?
Thyromuscularis and Superior Thyroarytenoid muscle
Which muscle is responsible for the change in vocal fundamental frequency?
Cricothyroid muscle
what is the space between the vocal folds called?
Glottis
State the theory of Bernoulli Effect.
The Bernoulli Effect states that a constant volume flow of air or fluid, at point of constriction there would be a decrease in air pressure perpendicular to the flow and an increase in velocity of the flow.
List and describe the vocal registers?
1. Modal register - used in daily conversation.
2. Glottal Fry ( aka Pulse Register or Strohbass), extremely low pitch voice that sounds crackly or like popcorn
3. Falsetto register is where the vocal folds lengthen and become extremely thin. They vibrate in tense bowed margins.
4. Whistle Register: a register above falsetto, vibration occurs as a result of turbulence on the edge of the vocal folds
What is puberphonia?
Puberphonia is the maintenance of the childhood pitch despite having passed through the developmental stage of puberty.
What is an octave?
An octave is a doubling of frequency.
what is the difference between intonation and stress?
Intonation refers to the changes in pitch in speech, whereas stress to syllable or word emphasis relative to an entire utterance.
True or False. In Glottal attack the vocal folds are adducted prior to initiation of expiratory flow.
True
True or False. In Breathy attack the vocal folds are adducted after initiation of expiratory flow.
True
Mobile articulators include...
Mobile articulators include the tongue, lower jaw, velum (soft palate), lips and cheeks
Immobile articulators include ...
Immobile articulators include the alveolar ridge of the upper jaw and the hard palate
Explain the following terms..
1. Overjet,
2. Overbite
Overjet - normal projection of upper incissors beyond lower incissors in a transverse plane.
Overbit: normal overlap of upper incissors relative to lower incissors.
Explain the following terms .....
Class 1 occlusion
Class 11 malocclusion
Class 111 malocclusion
Class 1 occlusion - first molar of upper jaw is one-half-tooth advanced in relation to the lower jaw
Class 11 malocclusion - 1st madibular is retracted by at least one tooth (overbite)
Class 111 malocclusion - 1st molar is protruded by at least one tooth (overjet)
Which muscle...
1. Depresses the velum
2. Elevates velum
3. Constricts esophageal opening
Palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus depresses velum,
Levetor veli palatini elevates velum
Cricopharyngeus constricts esophageal opening
Describe the first 2 phases of swallowing
1. Oral preparation: chewing of food and mixing with saliva to form bolus
2. Oral stage: bolus is moved back towards the oropharynx by the tongue
Describe the last 2 phases of swallowing
Pharyngeal stage: begins when the bolus reaches the faucial pillars, the soft palate and larynx elevate and the bolus is propelled through the pharynx to the esophageal sphinter. Bolus passes over the epiglottis and through the pyriform sinuses
Esophageal stage: peristaltic movement of the bolus through the esophagus
Which bone of the middle ear communicates directly with the oval window?
The Stapes
What is the primary site of localization of of sound in space?
Superior Olivary Complex
Describe cranial nerves 1, 2, 3, 4, 6
1- Olfactory nerve: smell, 2 - Oculomotor: vision, 3 Oclumotor, 4 trochlear, 6 abducens - eye movement,
Describe cranial nerves 5, 7
5-Trigeminal - innervates muscles of mastication, tensor veli palatini, sensation to face, mouth, teeth, tongue
7. Facial nerve- facial expression and taste for anterior two thirds of tongue
Describe cranial nerves 8, 9, 10
8 - vestibulocochlear - auditory and vestibular sensation
9 - posterior tongue receptors, pharynx and eustachian tube
10 - Vagus nerve - pain, touch, temprature, pharynx, larynx and esophagus
Describe cranial nerves 11 and 12
11- Accessory nerve collaborates with vagus nerve in activating palatal, pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles
12- hypoglossal nerve- muscles of tongue except palatoglossus
What organ is responsible for coordinating movement
Cerebellum