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16 Cards in this Set

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Judiciary Act of 1801
reduced the number of seats on the Supreme Court from six to five; reorganized the district and circuit courts;new lifetime posts for Federalist judges; effort by the lame duck Federalist majority in Congress to prolong its control of the federal judiciary before the end of President John Adams' term; associated with "midnight judges"
Midnight Judges
They were judicial appointments made by John Adams just before the end of his presidential term in 1801; Adams appointed Federalists who opposed the Democratic-Republican principles of his successor, Thomas Jefferson
Judicial Review
supreme court's power to decide whether an act of Congress or of the President was constitutional or unconstitunal; SC could overrule the other two branches of the Fed. government
Lewis and Clark Expedition
expedition from St.Louis to OR; increased geographic and scientific knowledge; strengthend US Claims to the Oregon Territory; better relations with Indians; and developed maps and land routhes for fur trapping and future settlers
Embargo Act of 1807
prohibited American merchant ships from sailing to any foreign port; Jefferson hoped this would make the Brits stop violating the rights of neutral nations; but it backfired and repealed in 1809
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
By Madison; said that US could trade with all nations except Britain and France
Henry Clay
the founder and leader of the Whig Party, the leading advocate of programs for modernizing the economy; planned the American system; liked protective tarriffs
John Calhoun
As chairman of the foreign relations committee, he introduced the declaration of war against Britain in 1812. During this period he emerged as one of the leaders of the Republican Party;said any state could declare the act of Congress unconstituional
Nicholas Biddle
lobbied for rechartering of the Bank of the US; became president of the Bank
Daniel Webster
United States Senator and Secretary of State; Famed for his ability as an orator; preserve the Union; fed. aid for projectts for roads in the West
Francis Scott Key
wrote the national anthem
Battle of New Orleans
in Jan. 8, 1815- United States forces defeated the British. The Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war, had been signed over two weeks earlier, but the news had not yet reached the southern front; led by Andrew Jackson
Treaty of Ghent
called for a halt to the fighting; the return of all conquered territoty to the prewar claimant; recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the US
Hartford Convention
a special convention in connecticut; Delegates from N.E. States rejected the radical calls for secession; proposal called for a 2/3 vote of both houses for an future declaration of war to limited the growing power of the Repubs in the south and west
Rush-Bagot Agrement
Major disarmenent pact; limited naval armament on the Great Lakes
Factory System
method of manufacturing adopted in England during the Industrial Revolution. Workers would come to work in a city factory, often making low-quality goods in mass amounts; declined quality of goods and the standard of living in the city