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22 Cards in this Set

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Storage polysaccharides like ***(animals) and ***(plants) are broken down into *** which is metabolized via glycolysis.
glycogen
starch
glucose 6-phosphate
--- Lactose ---
1) Disaccharide composed of...
2) Reducing sugar?
3) α/β linked?
4) Broken down by...
1) galactose --- glucose
2) Yes
3) β/α
4) lactase
--- Sucrose ---
1) Disaccharide composed of...
2) Reducing sugar?
3) α/β linked?
4) Broken down by...
1) fructose --- glucose
2) No
3) α/β
4) sucrase (invertase)
--- Trehalose ---
1) Disaccharide composed of...
2) Reducing sugar?
3) α/β linked?
4) Broken down by...
1) glucose --- glucose
2) No
3) α/α
4) trehalase
--- Maltose ---
1) Produced by enzyme *** during breakdown of
2) grain starches *** and ***. In mammals,
3) it's then hydrolyzed into *** by enzyme ***.
1) diastase
2) amylose and amylopectin
3) (2) glucose --- maltase
--- Maltose ---
1) Amylose and amylopectin are similar to glycogen but....
2) Other proteins uses to break down grains also include *** and ***...
1) have no/little branching
2) proteases and lipases.
--- Malting Process ---
1) # of steps
2) Which are...?
3) How long is each step?
1) 4
2) soak - germinate - heat drying/curing
3) 2-3 --- 7-14 --- 4(2 & 2)
1) ***: process in which cereal grains
2) soak, germinate, and dry in a ***.
3) Heat Drying temp?
4) Heat Curing temp?
1) kiln
2) Malting
3) 32-37 C
4) 78-100 C
--- Fructose ---
1) In skeletal muscle, it's metabolized by ***.
2a) In liver, acted on by *** and
2b) metabolized by *** and *** kinase.
1) hexokinase
2a) fructokinase
2b) fructose 1-P --- triose
Disaccharide Enzymes
1) Lactose
2) Sucrose
3) Trehalose
4) Maltose
1) Lacase
2) sucrase (invertase)
3) trehalase
4) maltase
--- Mannose ---
1) ***saccharide metabolized to *** which is
2) an intermediate in the *** pathway.
3) 1st --- *** Kinase
4) 2nd --- Phosphomannose ***
1) mono --- fructose 6-P
2) glycolysis
3) Hexose Kinase
4) Phosphomannose isomerase
--- Mannose ---
1) Hexose Kinase
Mannose + ATP ⇌ *** + ADP
2) Phosphomannose isomerase
xxx ⇌ ***
1) Mannose 6-P
2) Fructose 6-P
--- Ethanol Synthesis ---
1) Created when *** (generated during glycolysis) is re***
2) with *** serving as final electron acceptor.
1) NADH --- reoxidized
2) acetaldehyde
--- LIVER Enzyme Locations ---
1) Alcohol DH
2) Cytochrome P-450
3) Catalase
4) ALdehyde DH
1) cytosol (ADH)
2) microsomal (smooth ER)
3) peroxisomes
4) MITOCHONDRIA (ALDH)
--- Ethanol Metabolism LIVER ---
1) 1st pathways ⇌ ***
2) mito ALDH ⇌ ***
3) then enzyme *** prepares it for
4) TCA cycle by ⇌ ***
1) Acetaldehyde
2) Acetate
3) Acetyl-CoA synthetase
4) Acetyl-S-CoA
--- Ethanol Metabolism ---
Maximum Theoretical ATP?
1) Alcohol DH
2) ALdehyde DH
3) Catalase
1) 13 (5)
2) 8 (-2.5, 2.5)
3) 10.5 (2.5)
(-2, ???, ???, 10)
--- Ethanol Metabolism ---
Enzyme most important at this concentration...
1) High
2) Low
3) How many pathways are there?
1) Cytochrome P-450 OR MEOS
2) Alcohol DH
3) 3
--- Cytochrome P-450 ---
1) Falls w/in class called...
2) Consisting of *#* families and *#* subfamilies
1) mixed-function oxidases OR monooxygenases
2) 18--- 43
4)
--- Alcohol Enzymes ---
Ethanol + (???) ⇌ Acetaldehyde + (???)
1) Alcohol DH
2) Cytochrome P-450
3) Catalase
1) NAD+ ⇌ NADH/H+
2) NADPH/H+/O2 ⇌ NADP+/H2O
3) H2O2 ⇌ (2) H2O
--- Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) ---
Substrates ⇌ Products
H2O, NAD+, Acetaldehyde

NADH, H+, Acetic Acid
MEOS?
1) Is a mixed function *** associated
2) with the *** *** of liver cells.
3) requires *** and *** to function
Microsomal Ethanol Oxidizing System
1) oxidase
2) endoplasmic reticulum
3) NADPH and O2
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