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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are four serious electrophysiological effects of Digitalis toxicosis?
Sinus bradycardia
sinoatrial arrest of exit block
second or third degree AV conduction delay
Ventricular dysrythmias
What are the four broad causes for Digitalis toxicity?
increased absorbtion
decreased renal clearance
hypokalemic state
What are the GI signs of Digitalis tox?
What are the neurologic signs of Digitalis tox?
What is the mechanism of action for Bypyridine derivitives?
the inhibit PDE which increases cAMP = increased calcium concentrations in the myocardial cells
Drugs to decrease Preload:

What is the mechanism of action of nitroglycerin and when is it's use indicated?
It directly relaxes venous smooth muscle and provides the precurser for NO

It is used for the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema
what is the mechanism of action of hydralazine?
It is a direct-acting arteriolar dialator. It prevents calcium influx into smooth muscle.
What are the general effects of ACE inhibitors in patients with excessive RAAS?
prevent venous and arterial constriction
reduce Na retention and water retention by inhibiting aldosterone release
What is the mechanism of action for Sodium nitroprusside and when is it indicated for use?
It is a direct acting arteriolar and venodilator

It is used in acute/severe hypertension, acute heart failure secondary to mitral regurgitation
Metabolites of what drug can possibly cause cyanide toxicity
sodium nitroprusside
what ion channels are affected by class I, III, and IV?
Class I - Block Na channels

class III - block outward K channels

class IV - Ca channel blockers
What drug is used to treat A fib in the horse?
What is the protocol for quinidine treatment for a fib in the horse?
give through stomach tube and use test dose to monitor for toxicity.

10-15g doses every 3 hrs for 3 doses
What is a serious side effect of lidocaine use?
what is an early warning sign?
Amiodarone is a class III antiarrhythmic drug which blocks K, what else does it block?
It is also a Ca and beta blocker
Sotalol is not only a K blocker, what else does it block?
It is also a beta blocker
What are the factors that affect drug detection in race horses?
urine flow rate
blood flow
horse variability
What are some pharmacological factors that affect drug detection?
dosing interval
route of admin
drug interactions
What is a jug?
one liter of electrolyte with or without extra additives
What is a runnin jug?
500 cc usually dexolyte solution
What is a drench?
solution given orally or by NG tube
What is a bleeder?
Jargon for a horse with EIPH
What is a block?
Injection administered sub-Q in problem area
What is a blister?
counter-irritant med used to irritate a general area in order to increase blood flow and recruit healing factors
What are two drugs used for analgesia in lame race horses?
Sarapin and Methylcarbamine
Name three drugs that are used to treat gastric ulcers in horses.
What is the mechanism of action for heparin?
It must combine with alpha globulin or antithrobin III. together they inhibit factors in both pathways and inhance degradation of thrombin and decrease thrombin formation
What is the mechanism of aspirin?
irreversibly binds to COX 1 and 2in platelets rendering them useless forever
What test is used to monitor cumarin therapy?
OSPT test
What clotting factors are dependent on Vit K?
Name five local hemostatics.
gelatin sponge
epinephrine hydrochloride
silver nitrate
What is the mechanism of action for NSAIDS?
They inhibit COX 1 and COX 2 enzymes
Which NSAID has an irreversible action?
how do nsaids decrease elevated body temp?
by inhibiting COX enzymes, PG synthesis is inhibited and PGE2 is responsible for hypothalamus activation of elevated temp
Which drug is most associated with anti-thrombotic activity?
How do Nsaids cause gastric ulcers?
PG's inhibit acid secretion, promote mucous secretion and inhance mucosal blood flow. nsaids inhibit PG's so ulcers are a risk
phenylbutazone is used for mostly what kind of pain in horses?
What is the site of action for loop diuretics?
thick ascending limb of loop of henle
What are the indications for furosamide use?
treatment of CHF to reduce preload
acute pulmonary edema
edema caused by renal insufficiency
mammary edema in cattle
prevent EIPH in horses
Waht are the contraindications for furosamide usage?

severe volume depletion

hypersensitivity to sulfonamides
What is the site of action for Triamterene?
late distal tubule and collecting duct
What properties must osmotic diuretics have?
freely filterable
limited reabsorption
pahrmacologically inert
should not be metabolized
How does Digoxin work as a positive ionotrope?
Inhibits the Na-K ATPase in myocytes Since Ca moves out of the cell with Na, Ca is sequestered in the SR and more is available during contracction
How does Digoxin work as a negative chronotrope?
slows AV nodal conduction and ventricular response to A.fibb
What broad classes of drugs would one use to reduce preload?
ACE inhibitors
Which K+ sparing diuretic competes with aldosterone for binding sites in the late distal tubule?
How are K+ sparing diuretics administered?