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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Fibrous
Fibrous conn. tissue btwn bones
Cartilaginous
Cartilage btwn bones
Synovial
Jt. cavity present; all freely movable
Synarthrosis
Immovable jts. (no movement)
Amphiarthrosis
Slight Movement
Diarthrosis
Freely movable; all synovial
Fibrous joints
Fibrous conn. tissue btwn. art. bones; little no movement
Suture (fibrous joints)
Dense fibrous conn. tissue
Syndesmosis
ligament; has more space btwn. bones
Movement of suture
Synarthrotic
Example of suture
btwn. many skull bones
Synostosis
Dense irr. fibrous conn. tissue; occurs across a suture line; is also synarthrotic (no movement)example is the frontal or metopic suture in the frontal bone
Movement of Syndesmosis
Amphiarthrosis
Example of syndesmosis
distal end of tibia and fibula; interosseous membrane (ligament)
Gomphosis
Socket present
Movement of gomphosis
synarthrosis
Example of gomphosis
roots of teeth within alveolar sockets
Fibrous Joints
Suture
Syndesmosis
Gomphosis
Cartilaginous joints
Synchondrosis
Symphosis
Synchondrosis
Hyaline cartilage present
Movement of Synchondrosis
synarthrosis
Example of Synchondrosis
epiphyseal plate (hyaline cartilage at beginning but then turns into bone)
Symphosis
Fibrocartilage present btwn. bones
Movement of symphosis
amphiarthrosis
Example of Symphosis
pubic symphysis; intervertebral discs
Synovial joints
Synovial cavity
Articular cartilage
Articular capsule
Accessory ligaments
Articular discs (menisci)
Synovial joints structure
Space btwn. articulating bones lined with synovial membrane; synovial fluid in joint cavity
Synovial cavity
a space btwn the articulating bones; move freely; diarthrosis
Articular caritilage of synovial joints
hyaline
Articular capsule
surrounds a synovial joint; encloses synovial cavity, and unites articulating bones; 2 layers; fibrous capsule and synovial
Fibrous capsule (outer layer)
Dense irr. conn. tissue; called ligament if fibers strong and parallel
Synovial membrane (inner layer)
inner layer of synovial cavity; composed of areolar conn. tissue with elastic fibers; includes articular fad pad
Synovial fluid
Lubricates, anti-abrasive; nourshment
Accesory ligaments
extracapsular ligaments
intracapsular ligaments
extracapsular ligaments
Lie outside articular capsule
Intracapsular ligaments
Inside articular capsule but not in it cavity due to fold of synovial membranes
Articular discs (menisci)
knee pads of fibrocartilage lie btwn. the articular surfaces of the bone and are attached to the fibrous capsule
Torn cartilage
The tearing of articular discs in the knee, commonly among athletes
Meniscectomy
To cut menisci disc
Bursae
Sim. to synovial jt.
Sac like
outer fibrous membrane lined with a synovial membrane
Tendon Sheaths
tubelike bursae that wrap around tendons that experience considerable friction. Occurs where tendons pass through synovial cavities, such as the tendon of the biceps brachius
Synovial Joints (types)
Planar
Hinge
Pivot
Condyloid
Saddle
Ball and Socket
Planar joints
One flat slightly curved surface slides (glides) past another
Axis of movement of Planar joints
nonaxial
Hinge Joints
Convex surface fits into concave surface; movements involve and angle change
Axis of movement (hinge)
Monaxial
Pivot joints
Round or pointed structure fits into "ring like" structure made of bone and ligaments
Axis of movement (pivot)
monaxial
Condyloid (elliposoidal) joints
Convex oval shaped projection fits into oval depression
Axis of movement (Condyloid)
biaxial
Saddle Joints
Like rider in saddle
Axis of movement (saddle)
biaxial
Ball and socket joints
Ball-like projection fits into a cuplike cavity
gliding, angular, rotation, special movement
Movements at synovial joints
Gliding movements
flat bone surfaces move back and forth and from side to side with respect to one another
nonaxial
gliding movements
Ex. of gliding movements
btwn. wrists
btwn. carpals
Angular (hinge) movements
increase or decrease in the angle btwn. articulating bones.
Ex. of Angular movements
Flexion
Extension
Hyperextension
Abduction
Adduction
Circumduction
Flexion
decrease angle btwn. 2 bones
Extension
increase of angle btwn. 2 bones
Hyperextension
going back beyond 180' (double jointed)
Abduction
movement of a bone away from the midline of the body
Adduction
movement toward midline of body
Circumduction
distal bone and move it in a circle
Rotation
a bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis.
Medial rotation
towards midline
away from midline
Lateral rotation
Special movements
inversion
eversion
dorsiflexion
Plantar flexion
Protraction
Retraction
Elevation
Depression
Pronation
Supination
Opposition
inversion
medial mov. of the soles so that they face eachother
eversion
lateral movement of the soles so that they face away from eachother
dorsiflexion
Bending of the foot in the direction of the dorsum
Plantar flexion
Bending of the foot in the direction of the plantar surface
Protraction
Ant. mov. of a body part in the transverse plane
Retraction
Post. mov. of a body part in the transverse plane
Elevation
Superior movement of a body part
Depression
Inf. mov. of a body part
Pronation
mov. of the forearm that turns the palm posteriorly
Supination
Movement of the forearm that runs the palm anteriorly
Opposition
Movement of the thumb accross the palm to touch fingertips on the same hand