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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are joints?
(articulations) are functional junctions between bones
What are joints classified by?
according to the degree of movement they make possible and/or the type of tissue that binds the bones together at each junction
What are the three types of joints?
fibrous

cartilaginous

synovial
What are fibrous joints? What are their possible movements? Give examples.
articulating bones that are fastened together by a thin layer of fibrous connective tissue

none

sutures between the bones of the skull, joints between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula
What are cartilaginous joints? What are their possible movements? Give examples.
articulating bones that are connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage

limited movements, as when the back is bent or twisted

joints between the vertebrae, symphysis pubis
What are synovial joints? What are their possible movements? Give examples.
articulating bones that are surrounded by a joint capsule of ligaments and synovial membranes; ends of articulating bones are covered by hyaline cartilage and separated by synovial fluid

free movement

between the skin and underlying bony prominences
What is menisci?
flattened, shock-absorbing pads of fibrocartilage
What are bursae?
fluid-filled sacs
What are ball-and-socket joints? What are their possible movements? Give examples.
the ball-shaped head of one bone articulates with the cup-shaped cavity of another

movements in all planes and rotation

shoulder, hip
Which joints are the synovial joints classified into?
ball-and-socket

condyloid

gliding

hinge

pivot

saddle
What are condyloid joints? What are their possible movements? Give examples.
the oval-shaped condyle of one bone articulates with the elliptical cavity of another

variety of movements in different planes, but no rotation

joints between the metacarpals and phalanges
What are gliding joints? What are their possible movements? Give examples.
articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved

sliding or twisting

joints between various bones of the wrist and ankle, sacroiliac joint, joints between ribs 2-7 and the sternum
What are hinge joints? What are their possible movements? Give examples.
the convex surface of one bone that articulates with the concave surface of another

flexion and extension

elbow, joints of phalanges
What are pivot joints? What are their possible movements? Give examples.
the cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with the ring of the bone and fibrous tissue

rotation around a central axis

joint between the proximal ends of the radius and ulna
What are saddle joints? What are their possible movements? Give examples.
articulating surfaces that both have concave and convex regions; the surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another

variety of movements

joint between the carpal and metacarpal of thumb
What is insertion?
the end of a muscle attached to a movable part
What is the origin?
the end of the muscle that attaches to immovable parts
What are the types of joint movements?
flexion
extension
dorsiflexion
plantar flexion
hyperextension
abduction
adduction
rotation
circumduction
pronation
supination
eversion
inversion
retraction
protraction
elevation
depression
flexion
bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together
(bending the lower limb at the knee)
extension
straightening parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farther apart
(straightening the lower limb at the knee)
dorsiflexion
flexing the foot at the ankle toward the shin
(bending the foot upward)
plantar flexion
flexing the foot at the ankle toward the sole
(bending the foot downward)
hyperextension
excessive extension of the parts at a joint, beyond the normal range of motion
(overextending the elbow)
abduction
moving a part away from the midline
(lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a right angle with the side of the body)
adduction
moving a part toward the midline
(returning the upper limb from the horizontal position to the side of the body)
rotation
moving a part around an axis
(twisting the head from side to side)
circumduction
moving a part so that its end follows a circular path
(moving the finger in a circular motion without moving the hand)
pronation
turning the hand so that the palm is downward or turning the foot so that the medial margin is lowered
supination
turning the hand so that the palm is upward or turning the foot so that the medial margin is raised
eversion
turning the foot so that the sole is outward
inversion
turning the foot so that the sole is inward
retraction
moving a part backward
(pulling the chin backward)
protraction
moving a part foward
(thrusting the chin foward)
elevation
raising a part
(shrugging the shoulders)
depression
lowering a part
(drooping the shoulders)