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85 Cards in this Set

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non-purposeful eye movements?
neurovegetative state
T or F: subdural space does NOT communcate with CSF
TRUE
68 year-old male who smokes tobacco, has COPD. Suspect:
O2 saturation of 88%
All of the following are TRUE, EXCEPT:
Hypoxia is likely caused by a true pulmonary shunt.
78-year-old male with CHF, dyspnea, displaced heart sounds, absent fremitus, crackles, and no egophony:
pleural effusion with decrease in breath sounds, dull percuss
perfect shunt
Which does NOT cause an increase in leukocytes?
migraines
A 72-year-old female with metastatic breast cancer has a decrease in BP, increase in HR, thin, dry mucosal membranes, volume depletion, but a normal serum sodium level. Which of the following is NOT true?
Patient is dehydrated. (NOT true because of normal sodium levels).
Creatinine indicates what?
muscle mass
What is the NAACP mnemonic?
Which of the following is NOT an exogenous pyrogen?
cytokines
Define hyperthermia:
Hyperthermia: a state of elevated temperature with a NORMAL set point.
A 69-year-old patient with dyspnea and dizziness has a BP of 125/95, narrow pulse pressure, and a crescendo-decrescendo systolic murmur has what?
aortic stenosis
What is the best estimate of heart function?
narrow pulse pressure
In aortic stenosis, why is there a supply/demand mismatch with subendocardial ischemia?
caused by an increase in left ventricular demand
A patient with edema, rales, a holosystolic murmur at the apex that radiates has:
mitral valve insufficiency
Which of the following is NOT true of aortic insufficiency?
The murmur is heard at the BEGINNING of systole in aortic insufficiency. (incorrect statement)
When is a coronary artery bypass indicated?
Young Japanese person with angina:
Prinzmetal's angina
Which is NOT recommended to decrease the risk of having an MI?
pill-therapy for weight reduction is NOT recommended
How do you calculate HR using an EKG?
HR = 300/(# of big boxes)
If a patient has a HR of 150 and a 2:1 block, then it is a […] until proven otherwise.
FLUTTER
All of the following are causes of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY EXCEPT: A. Alcoholism B. Peri-partum state C. Ischemia of the heart D. Idiopathic cardiomyopathy E. amyloid cardiomyopathy
AMYLOID CARDIOMYOPATHY is NOT an example of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY. (Amyloid cardiomyopathy is restrictive.)
What are diseases where mechanical lowering of body temperature is NOT indicated?
West Nile virus
Do amoebas and pinworms cause eosinophilia?
no
What's the difference between unstable and stable angina?
What causes dementia in Alzheimer's disease?
degree of neuronal synaptic loss
What parameters are checked in SIADH?
Check urine and serum osmolarity, in addition to serum sodium levels
What are the symptoms of SIADH?
normovolemia, decrease in serum Na+, and increase in urine osmolality
Is flaccid paresis associated with Idiopathic Parkinson's disease?
NO
What happens to the (FEV1)/(FVC) ratio in emphysema?
There is a DECREASE in the (FEV1)/(FVC) ratio in emphysema
A 7-year-old patient presents with coca-cola urine and hypertension. What is the dx?
post-infectious Glomerulonephritis
For Post-infectious Glomerulonephritis, are the complement levels high or low?
HYPOcomplementemia in Post-infectious GN
A 42-year-old female has had abdominal pain, intermittent diarrhea, weight loss over the past year, and exhibit a tender mass at the RLQ. What is the dx?
Crohn's disease
What are the colonoscopic features of Crohn's disease?
Deep ulcerations and cobblestoning on colonoscopy.
A 25-year-old patient has blood diarrhea and urgency. All of the following treat ULCERATIVE COLITIS EXCEPT: A. Oral mesalamine B. Rectal mesalamine C. oral steroids D. TNF-alpha E. rectal S-ASA
TNF-ALPHA is used for Crohn's disease, NOT ulcerative colitis
An 18-year-old patient has ULCERATIVE COLITIS. Which of the following is a complication? A. nephrolithiasis B. INCREASED risk of colon cancer
INCREASED risk of colon cancer
All of the following are associated with INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE EXCEPT:
EXUDATIVE PERICARDIAL EFFUSIONS
A patient has bloody diarrhea, lower back pain, round, painful red lesions, and bilateral changes in the sacro-iliac joints. What's the dx?
INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
A 35-year-old female has amenorrhea, hirsutism, hypertension, and abdominal striae, all of which are indicative of Cushing's disease. Which of the following diagnostic tests are correct?
A. 24-hour urinary free cortisol level AND E. ACTH suppression test
Is TSH secretion diurnal?
TSH secretion is NOT diurnal.
A patient has amenorrhea and tender breasts. The physical exam demonstrates milky discharge from both breast, indicating a PROLACTINOMA. What is the preferred initial treatment?
BROMOCRIPTINE
Cortisol has been given to a patient for arthritis for the past 8 months. If the cortisol is discontinued abruptly, then the patient is at risk for:
B. HYPERKALEMIC ACIDOSIS
GH symptoms….When should GH serum measurements be drawn?
2 hours post-glucose load
What are some endogenous diabetogenic substances?
1. cortisol 2. epinephrine 3. GH
All of the following statements concerning Hepatitis are true EXCEPT:
The carrier state in Hepatitis A is often asymptomatic for years into adulthood.
True or False: A positive HBsAg merely indicates previous exposure to the virus or recent vaccination and does NOT correlate to infection.
FALSE
A positive HBsAg means what regarding infection?
means ACUTE or CHRONIC infection
A positive HBsAb means what?
means EXPOSURE, says nothing about infection state
All of the following are true regarding Hep B vs. C EXCEPT:
PERMUCOSAL transmission is much more likely with Hep C than with Hep B. (false statement)
What is the most common method of transmission of Hep C?
blood transfusions
What are the most commond method(s) of transmission of Hep B?
blood and sexual transmission
A patient has ascites, palmar erythema, and a decreased BP. He also has a positive HBsAG and a positive HBcAb-IgG, both indicated an infected, chronic state. There is a 10^7 viral load. All of the following statements are TRUE EXCEPT:
Either: Risk of developing chronic infection is related to the age at which he was 1st treated for the virus OR Viral load is too low to warrant therapy. (*Note: I don't know the correct answer, other than it is either of the previous statements. I typed this up from someone else's notes)
A positive HBsAg indicates what?
infected state
A positive HBcAb that are IgG indicates what?
chronic infection
A patient has had DM1 for 8 years. Which of the following is the longest acting insulin drug?
GLARGINE is the LONGEST-ACTING insulin drug.
Which of the following statements is atypical of Diabetic Metabolism?
Insulin is essential for the body's metabolism ONLY during the fed state, when glucose is abundant. (false statement). (Explanation: Diabetics and EVERYONE needs insulin for both the fed and fasting states.)
Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for endocarditis?
corticosteroids
Which of the following is the most likely organism causing native-valve infective endocarditis?
Streptococcus VIRIDANS
A patient exhibits confusion, a fever, red skin lesions on his digits, and his febrile. He appears to be undergoing sepsis. What are the DUKE'S CRITERIA PARAMETERS?
1 MAJOR + 3 MINOR
What is the acronym for atypical organisms that cause endocarditis?
HACEK
Do Acenitobacter species cause endocarditis?
NO!
An intravenous methamphetamine user is at risk for what?
Staph infection --> Tricuspid endocarditis --> emboli + pneumonia
A patient has painful subacute DeQuervain's thyroiditis. What is the I(123) uptake level?
low I(123) uptake in DeQuervain's thyroiditis.
A patient has low TSH levels and an elevated I(123) uptake. What is the Dx?
Grave's disease
A patient has exacerbated COPD and sick euthyroid syndrome. Are the reverse T3 levels high or low?
reverse T3 levels are high
A patient has a thyroid nodule. A solid one indicates a tumor, while a cold nodule indicates a non-iodine-uptaking tumor. What needs to be done?
fine needle aspiration
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
Thyroid peroxidase (microsomal) antibodies are found in Grave's disease. (FALSE STATEMENT; microsomal antibodies are found in Hashimoto's thyroiditis).
A smoker with pneumonia is infected by a gram-negative coccobacillus. What is the organism?
Haemophilus influenzae
A pneumonia + RASH is known as what?
Walking pneumoniae
What are the most common organisms causing walking pneumoniae?
viruses, Mycoplasma
For a patient with pneumonia + RASH, all of the following statements concerning techniques used to dx are true EXCEPT:
use the gram-stain to identify the organism in walking pneumonia (false statement; One CANNOT gram-stain Mycoplasma!)
A 78-year-old patient with lung cancer, a BP of 90/40, a HR of 140, and high comorbidities should be treated in what way?
Patient should be hospitalized and started on IV Abs.
Which of the following is indicative of AIDS?
chronic mucocutaneous or esophageal Herpes simplex infections
How do you Dx HIV?
salivary Ab to HIV by ELISA, confirmed by Western Blot
What is the Rx for Immune Reconstitution Syndrome?
steroids
A person went camping and got diarrrhea from what?
Giardia lamblia
What is the most common cause of diarrhea in children?
rotavirus
A patient with COPD and bilateral flank pain (pyelonephritis) is treated with Clindamycin. What happened next?
Patient gets pseudomembranous colitis
What kind of bilirubinemia is Gilbert's disease?
Gilbert's = benign hyperbilirubinemia (indirect conjugation)
Liver disease and emphysema can be caused by an alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. What is the gene coding for alpha-1 anti-trypsin secretion?
piz/pizz
A patient with cirrhosis is most likely to be hypo or hypertensive?
cirrhosis = hypotensive
What is the most common cause of chronic pancreatitis?
alcohol abuse (EtoH)
Which of the following statements is TRUE about cirrhosis?
With cirrhosis, a patient is likely to have relative systemic hypotension and a decrease in total peripheral resistance.
Which of the following are hyperaldosterone states requiring a restriction of salt intake?
1. cirrhosis 2. nephrosis 3. CHF