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40 Cards in this Set

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What is prepubertal growth velocity?
4-6 cm/yr
What is postpubertal growth velocity?
8-10 cm/yr
What is the first sign of puberty in girls?
thelarche
What is the first sign of puberty in boys?
thinning of scrotal skin, testicular volume enlargement
At what SMR stage does growth velocity peak in
a. Girls
b. Boys
a. SMR 3
b. SMR 4
In constitutional growth delay, bone age is
(equal, less than, greater than) _____ chronological age.
BA less than CA
What is delayed puberty in girls - give two answers.
1. No menses by 4 years after thelarche.
2. No menses by age 16 years.
What is the order of puberty in girls?
TAGME
Thelarche - Adrenarche - Growth spurt - Menarche
What age is precocious puberty in girls caucasian vs. AA?
Caucasian - 8 yrs
AA - 7 yrs
What central hormone is responsible for initiating puberty?
GnRH pulse generator
What percentile weight is SGA?
Less than 10th %
What percentile weight is LGA?
Greater than 90th %
What is defined as ADEQUATE Group B Strep treatment?
Penicillin given greater than or equal to 4 hours prior to delivery.
* Not Vanc or Clinda
* Not number of doses
What are "risk factors" to administer antibiotics to a GBS UNKNOWN mother?
1. Gestational age < 37wks
2. ROM > 18 hr
3. Maternal fever >100.4
4. GBS bacteruria during this pregnancy
5. Previous infant with invasive GBS disease
cerebral Na wasting vs SIADH


decreased UO
SIADH
cerebral Na wasting vs SIADH


hyponatremia
SIADH
cerebral Na wasting vs SIADH

volume depletion
cerebral Na wasting
cerebral Na wasting vs SIADH

normal serum Na
can be seen with cerebral Na wasting
cerebral Na wasting vs SIADH


increased BP
SIADH
what med would you start for renal protection in pt with persistent proteinuria?
ACE I
What are some of the Signs and Symptoms of the Common Cold?
Nasal discharge, congestion sneezing, post nasal drip
Sore throat, hoarseness, cough
Low grade fever (<39)
Decreased sleep, decreased appitite
HA
Irritability, Malaise,
Myalgias, Fatique
Whare are some of the viruses known to cause the common cold?
Rhino
Corona
Adeno
RSV
Influenza
Parainfluenza
Reoviruses
Nonpolio
What are some of the possible complications of the common cold?
Sinus infection
AOM
OM with effusion
Name some of the 1st generation antihistamines.
Diphenhydramine
Hydroxyzine
Chlorpheniramine
Brompheniramine
Clemastine
How do 1st generation antihistamines work?
1st generation antihistamines are H1 receptor blockers. They have anticholinergic properties causing a drying action on mucous membranes.
Name the 2nd generation antihistamines.
Terfenadine
Astemizole
Loratadine
Cetirizine
What are the differences between the 1st and 2nd generation antihistamines?
1st generation crosses the BBB Which can result in sedation and they have anticholinergic properties. 2nd Generations don't cross the BBB and don't have anticholinergic properties (don't have a drying effect).
Name some common Decongestants and their mechanism of action.
Pseudoephedrin, Phenylephedrin, Oxymetazoline

They are sympathomimetics.
They cause vasoconstriction, which reduces blood volume and swelling in the nasal mucosa ultimately decreasing nasal discharge
What are the adverse effects of systemic Decongestants?
Tachycardia Hypertension Palpitations Dysrhythmias
Irritability Agitation
Sleeplessness
Anorexia
HA N/V
Seizures
Dystonic reactions
What are the adverse effects of Antihistamines.
Sedation
Paradoxic excitability
Dizziness
Respiratory depression
Hallucinations
Tachycardia
Heart Block
Arrhythmia
Dry Mouth
Blurred vision
Urinary retention
What is the most common manifestation of GER in infants?
Vomiting
What is Sandifer Syndrome?
GERD resulting in sterotypic repetitive stretching and arching movements that may be mistaken for atypical seizures or dystonia.
How do preschool children with GERD present?
Intermittent vomiting, food refusal, or respiratory complications.
How do older children with GERD present?
Heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, food impaction or if severe inflammation there can be chronic blood loss with anemia and hemetemesis.
What are the warning signs suggestive of nonreflux disease?
Bilious or forceful vomiting, hemetemesis, hematochezia, diarrhea, abdominal tenderness or distention, onset of vomiting after 6 months, fever, lethargy, hepatosplenomegaly, seizures, macrocephaly/microcephaly
What conditions can be diagnoses by UGI?
Malrotation, esophageal or antral webs, pyloric stenosis, Schatzki rign
Can an UGI discriminate between physiologic and nonphysiologic reflux?
No.
What are the pulmonary complications of GERD?
Asthma, bronchitis, apnea, ALTE, chronic cough, recurrent aspiration pneumonia
What are the ENT complications of GERD?
hoarseness, laryngitis, sinusitis, dental erosions, recurrent otitis media
By what age do most infants outgrow their reflux?
12 months