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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the elements in the Communication Process?
Source, Message, Channel, and receiver
Define the two different types of noise
semantic and channel(mechanical and environmental)
Define the three points of Klapper
selective attention, selective perception, and selective retention
What is S-R-R?
Stimulus, Response, and Reinforcement
What is Leon Festinger associated with?
cognitive dissonance
Name two different types of mass communication dealing with the internet
E-mail, chatrooms
What is "mass communication"?
a message delivered to mass audiences with usually no immediate feedback.
Name the breakdown of mass communication (5 points)
produced by complex and formal organizations, have multiple gatekeepers, need a great deal of money to operate, exist to make a profit, and are highly competitive.
Define "gatekeepers"
someone or something that controls distribution of information
Know what Segmentation and Fractionalization mean
S-audience broken, F-different channels
Name the three main functions of mass communication
to inform, to entertain, and economic conductor (advertising)
Define Surveillance and the other three estates
Surveillance: watch dog function, 4th estate. 3 Branches of Gov. the other three estates
Define parasocial relationships (soaps)
where characters become real to you.
Name two dysfunctions of mass communications
(lower)reading, (not enough) physical excercise
Name the first great legal document
Code of Hammurabi, Sumeria, 2000 BC
What did Johann Gutenberg do?
Invent the printing press with moveable metal type, responsible for much social change
Name the two key communication inventions of the Age of Invention and Discovery
telegraph and telephone
What did Samuel F. B. Morse invent?
the telegraph
What did Alexander Graham Bell invent?
the telephone
What did Joseph Niepce and Louis Daguerre do?
first came up with method to retain image (early photography)
What did George Eastman's Kodak company do?
first to use flexible celleuloid film.
Who was Mathew Brady?
famous Civil War photographer
Who was Margaret Bourke-White?
first nationally known photojournalist
what is vaudeville?
travelling live entertainment
what is WSM?
clear channel, "Grand O'l Opry"
What does "PDA" stand for?
Personal digital assistants (mobile parenting)
Who was William Caxton?
associated with first press in England
What are the three philosophies of the role of the press?
Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility
What did Adam Smith and John Milton believe?
free and open marketplace.
What did Justice William Blackstone define freedom of the press as?
no prior restraint
When did Oliver Wendell Holmes say that "no prior restraint" could be violated?
when there is clear and present danger
What did the Court of Star Chamber do?
cruel punishment for printers who did not have liscence from gov. to print. If accused, thats it. No defense.
What was the John Peter Trial for, and who was the lawyer?
truth as a defense for libel, and Andrew Hamilton
Who was Benjamin Harris?
first American newspaper in Boston, Public Occurances
Who was John Campbell?
First regular weekly newspaper, Boston News Letter
Who was James Franklin?
first colonial paper printed in defiance of authority, The New England Courant
What did Mary Katherine Goddard do?
printed copies of the Declaration of Independence
Name the two types of Colonial papers
mercantile and political
Define Federalist (name and one thing)
Alexander Hamilton, strong central gov,
Define Republican (name and two things)
Thomas Jefferson, strong states rights, libertarian
What did the Alien and Sedition Acts do?
made it illegal to falsely criticize the government
The First publishers of the United States were primarily what?
printers, not editors
What was the first Indian Newspaper?
the Cherokee Phoenix, both in English and Cherokee
Who was involved with Andrew Jackson's "kitchen cabinet"?
Amos Kendall and Francis Blair
What did the Penny Press do?
changed the economic basis of producing newspapers
What did Benjamin Day do?
editor of the New York Sun, first to have color and first to sell for a penny
What did James Gordon Bennett do?
known for "scoops"
What is Horace Greely known for?
first to have an editorial page
Who was Margaret Fuller?
first woman foreign correspondent
Who were Henry Raymond and later Adolph Ochs known for?
the New York Times, old gray lady, the newspaper of record
What is Pulitzer known for?
New York World
What is William Randolph Hearst known for?
New York Journal, used sensationalism. Battle with Pulitzer
Yellow Journalism?
from yellow kid cartoon, anything to sell papers and sensationalism
tabloid design?
front page looks like magazine cover, back page is lead page of sports section
Impact of USA Today?
Largest circulation, use of factoid
What is Underground Press?
started for a cause. ex. Rolling Stone
What does TMC mean?
total market coverage
what is a shopper?
free circulation paper
what did tax laws do?
decline in family ownership and rise in chain ownership largest is Gannett Company
What are the three main departments of a newspaper?
business, production, and news-editorial
what are the three types of circulation?
single copy sales, home delivery, mail
What is a news hole?
space left over
what is pagination? What does it do?
designing paper on a computer screen, eliminates pasting
what does SAU stand for?
Standard Advertising Unit
How big is a pica?
6 to an inch
how big is a point?
72 to an inch
what is a jump?
continued part of a story
what is broadsheet?
larger type of newspaper layout
what is the masthead?
block in first 4-6 pages says who is publisher, how it is mailed
what is the folio?
name, page number, and date
what is the nameplate?
tells name of the paper
what is letterpress?
oldest printing process, presses letters to paper "hot lead"
what is offset lithography?
second type of printing process, most used
what is gravure?
fine printing process