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58 Cards in this Set

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Paracrine communication involves...
the use of chemical signls to transfer info from cell to cell within a single tissue (locally)
Endocrine communication results ...
when chem. called hormones are released into circulation, that alter the metabolic activities of many tissues and organs by modifying the activities of target cells.
Thyroid and steroid hormones act differently how?
They both cross the membrane of target cells bind to receptors in the cytoplasm and are involved in direct gene manipulation (activate/deactivate)
Thyroid H- can also increase ATP output by binding to the mitochondria
Hypothalmus controls via
secreting regulatory hormones which control how the adenohypophysis reacts and produces hormones that are stored in the neurohypophysis for later releasal.
What are the 9 hormones released by the bilobed pituitary gland?
ADH oxytocin via neruohypophysis
Adenocorticotropic hormone ACTH
FSH
LH
TSH
PRL
GH
MSH
The nine peptide hormones released by the hypophyseal endocrine gland what are they?
They all bind to the membrane recepters of target cells and use what as a 2nd msgr?
ACTH
LH
FSH
MSH
TSH
PRL
GH
Use cyclic AMP or cAMP
the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; what is it called and what are it's three partitions? What glands do they produce?
What is the infundibulum?
Adenohypophysis
Pars distalis : anterior makes most of the hormones 6 of them
Pars intermedia middle - MSH
Pars tuberalis sits next to the infundibulum and which is a funnel that connects hypothalmus to the hypophysis
Which 4 hormones of the adenohypophysis regulate other endocrine organs? What releasing and inhibiting hormone does the hypothalmus make w/ respect to each, and which endocrine organs/functions?
TRH>TSH>Thyroid gland>T3 & T4
Cortoroid Releasing Hormone (CRH)>ACTH>suprarenal cortex>Zona fasciculata>glucocorticoids
Gonad releasing hormones > FSH > sex organs> inhibin & estorgens(for girls)
GnRH > LH > Sex organs > girls -Progestins Estrogens boys Androgens
Pars distalis makes which hormones?
It makes 6 out of 7 hormones of the adenohypophysis
ACTH
TSH
LH
FSH
GH
PRL
TSH
triggers the release of Thyroid hormone, is regulated by TRH
ACTH
Regulated via CRH
Triggers the release of glucocorticoids
FSH
Stimulates follicles to develop
estrogen and sperm production.
Regulated via GnRH
LH
Causes ovulation and androgen production in males.
Regulated via GnRH
PRL
Mammary glands and milk
PRF prolactin releasing factors, and dopamine/PIH regulate it's production.
GH
somatotropin stimulates cell growth and replication through the release of somatomedins or IGF from liver cells.
Regulated via GH-RH and GH-IH
MSH
pars intermedia during fetal development, childhood and preggo or certain diseases to prodcuse melanin
Nuerohypophysis
Unmylenated posterior portion stores ADH and Oxytocin
TBG
thyroid binding globulins are the special transport protens that carry Thyroid hormones, the other two are albumin and transthyretin
Calorigenic effect
When thyroid hormone bind to mitochondria increasing atp production and the heat generatedl
C-Cells produce
Calcitonin which is antagonistical to PTH
Parathyroid Chief cells produce
PTH which is antagonistical to the calcitonin made by C-Cells of the thyroid
PTH
Hormone that increases when Ca levels are low in order to retain water at the kidneys increase the digestive absoption rate and break down bone via osteoblast stimulation
Two parts of the suprarenal gland
Suprarenal cortex
Su[rarenal medulla
Suprarenal cortex
Produces?
subdivisions:
adrenocortical steroids, corticosteroids
zona glomerulosa mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
zona fasciculata glucocorticoids
zona reticularis androgens
aldosterone
made from zona glomerosa
mineralcorticoid Increases Na dec K
targets pancrease kidneys salivary and sweat glands.
glucocorticoids
made at the zona fasciculata, regulated via ACTH and CRH and negative feed back.
cortisol the primary glucocorticoid can be converted by the liver to cortisone. inc rate of glucose synthesis and glycogen formation in the liver. Fatty acids released from adipocytes. Also have anti inflammatory.
Glucose sparing effect
Glucocorticoids and GH/somatomedins increase blood glucose levels, usually be causing the release of fatty acids which are broken down rather than glucose.
Amino acid derivatives:
Tyrosine, tryptophan
tryosine : thyroid hormones, E and NE (epinep and norepine)
tryptophan - melatonin
Peptide hormones
TSH
LH
FSH
ADH
PRL
Lipid derivatives
2 types
1 made from arachidonic acid (eiosanoids):
Leukotrienes wbc
Prostaglandins: coordinate local metabolism
2 Steroids made from cholesterol androgens corticosteriods and calcitriol
4 mechanisms of intercellular communication
Direct - gap junc
Paracine- interstitial fluid Paracrine factors.
Endocrine- circulatory Hormones
Synaptic synaptic cleft NT
Prostaglandins
communicate via paracrine communication
can be converted to throboxanes and prostacyclins
Down regulation
hormone triggers decrease in receptors. ie when lvls of hormone high [ ] target cells become desensitized.
Up regulation
When levels of hormone are low target cells become more sensitive to this hormone. Absence of the hormone triggers an increase of receptors.
Diabetes insipidus vs Diabetes melatus
Insip because ADH is impaired,h20 conservation becomes impaired and loss of fluids
Mel- High glucose concentrations too much for kidneys
Diabetes I vs Diabetes II
1 is insulin dependent as the body doesn't make enough insulin
2. is usually from beta bombing, they they could be desensitized by insulin. Cells grew resistent.
Suprarenal medulla
Makes E and NE
mostly epine
Pineal gland where is it located what hormone?
Attached to the 3rd ventricle of the brain secretes melatonin that inhibit reproductive functions protect against dmg by free radicals and help with circadian rhythmns
Pancrease
types of cells what they produce
Pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans) alpha cells- glucagon
beta cells insulin
delta somatostatin GH-IH
F cells pancreatic polypeptide
Insulin
lowers blood glucose increase rate of glucose uptake
Insulin IN to the cells
Glucagon
Raises blood glucose by inc the rates of glycagen breakdown and glucose manufacture in the liver
Kidneys endocrine function
which 3 hormones produced?
Calcitriol-calcium phosphate ion absorption
Erythropoeitin rbc production in the bone marrow
renin converts angio tension to angiotension I
in lungs AnTI>AnTII>stimulates suprarenal to make aldosterone the pituitary to release ADH and promtes thirst and inc BP
Heart related to endocrine function
ANP BNP when blood volume becomes high antagonistical to AnTII
Thymus
Thymosins develop lymph nodes and help Immunocompitency
Interstitial cells of the testes
androgens Testosterone
Follicle cells
estrogens in women progeterone
Adipose tissue
leptin dec appetite
Synergistic
additive
Integrative effects
hormones produce different but complimentary responses
permissive effects
one hormone is neccessary to make another
Normal growth
GH, thyroid, insulin PTH calcitriol and reproductive hormones
Stree
Any condition that threatens homeostasis
GAS
3 phases
general adaptation syndrome aka stress response
alarm - immediate flight or fight response
resistance- glucocorticoids take over
exhaustion phase breakdown of homeostatic regulation and failure of one or more organ systems
FSH in males
supports the maturation of sperm by stimulating nurse cells
Endocrine regulation 4 types
Neural, composition of extracellular fluid, hormones by hypothalmus, hormones from other endocrine glands
3 higher level mechanisms involved in integrating the activities of the nervous and endocrine systems?
1. Hypothalamus makes regulatory hormones that control secretion by endocrine cells in the adenohypophysis.
2. The hypothalamus contains autonomic centers that exert direct NEURAL control over endocrine cells of the suprarenal medulla
3.Hypotalamus releases adh and oxytocin to the neurohypophysis. All are adjusted through negative feedback loops
6 hormones that affect growth
GH
reproductive hormones
thyroid hormone
insulin
calcitriol and pth
5 Thyroid hormone effects
Increase energy consuption/utilization, accelerated production of Na-K ATPase, gene activation synthessis of enzymes involved in glycolysis and E production.
Accelerated ATP by mitochondria
and in growing children normal development of skeletal muscle and nervous systems.