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15 Cards in this Set

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The three parts of philosophy according to Stoicism
Logic - the rational order which the universe exhibits
Physics - the causal order which the universe exhibits
Ethics - the moral order which the universe exhibits
Deus sive natura

who advocated it?
what is its significance?
Another word for pantheism
Stoics
- Nature is God
1. God is material
2. Nature is rational - intelligent and intelligible
3. Nature is good - it is moral and providential
pneuma

who advocated it?
what is its significance?
Stoics

divided the universe into the active and the passive
matter is passive and the rational principle (logos--God) is active. God then is like a craftsman. This active principle is a special kind of fire (pneuma) which inheres in matter and that nature is craftsman like in its use of this fire
Zeno's syllogistic argument that nature is God
That which is rational is better than that which is irrational

Nothing is better than the cosmos

Therefore the cosmos is rational

Repeat for qualities like eternal, happy, wise, etc.
Zeno's (non-syllogistic) argument that nature is God
if something has the ability to perceive then none of its parts have the ability to perceive

Some parts of the cosmos do have the ability to perceive

Therefore the cosmos does not lack the ability to perceive

Similarly, nothing which lacks life can produce from itself something which is alive, therefore the cosmos is alive and rational.
Argument from consensus omnium

Who made it?
What is it?
Stoics - Circero

There is agreement among all societies that there are Gods
Argument from intelligent design.

who made it?
what is it?
Stoics

Just as artifacts exhibit an intricate and beautiful organization, so too does the universe (even more so).

Every artifact is designed by an intelligent being.

Similar effects have similar causes.

The universe was designed by an intelligent being
Eternal reccurence
Fire is the arche and thus is the stuff by which God is made out of. God created the world out of himself (fire) and as such all things will pass away into fire into a great conflagration. Stoics thought that because the end state is identical to the beginning state, then it is conceivable that all things should occur again exactly as they have occured.
Why does Plato think that philosophy is a preparation for death?
True knowledge consists in knowledge of the forms.

No knowledge of the forms can be derived from sense perception

Knowledge of the forms can only be gained through thought

No thought can come from the body, but only from the (immortal) soul

Philosophy is the practice of arriving at knowledge of the forms and hence the practice of learning how to reason better.

Thought works best when it is free from sense perception

Death is absolutely free from all sense perception and hence the best state in which to reason

Hence a Philosopher, who aims at the best state in which to reason, aims at achieving a state of death

Therefore philosophy is a preparation for death
Plato's argument that we have knowledge of the Forms before birth
Anytime we perceive something as equal, we use our knowledge of equal itself, of what equal is

Anything equal which we can perceive is equal to some things, but not to others

Equal itself is never unequal; it is unvaryingly equal

Equal itself is not something we can perceive

All knowledge that we have gained since birth is of things that can be perceived

Therefore we gained our knowledge of the equal before birth

*Repeat for any of the forms
Plato's argument from recollection for the immortality of the soul
If at some time, someone recollects something, they must have learned it at some earlier time

We can recollect things which we could not have learned since we were embodied at birth

Hence, there are things we learned before we were in embodied at birth

Whenever someone learns something, they are alive and have a soul

Therefore we were alive and had souls before birth
What is the harmonia objection to Plato's argument for the immortality of the soul
Tuning [harmonia] is something invisible that is attached to something visible, physical, bodily, and perishable. But tunings perish with the instrument. Plato's argument leaves out the possibility that the soul simply supervenes on the body as something seperate, but not thereby independent.
logos
four meanings:
1. units of speech
2. account, explanation
3. proportion, ratio
4. intellect understanding
substance dualism of plato
Phaedo

The soul and the body are nonidentical

the soul is independent of the body
What is the argument against motion to which Leucippus responded?
Nothing moves unless there is a place it can move into

Something can move into a place only if it is filled with (a) emptiness or (b) something that is not fully dense

But something is not fully dense only if some portion of its volume is emptiness

Something can move into a place only if some portion of its volume is emptiness

Nothing moves unless there is emptiness

But emptiness is nothing- there is no such thing

Therefore Nothing moves