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366 Cards in this Set

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What do social aspects involve?
An examination of how cultural and social contest affect the ways people interact and influence each other
What do individual aspects involve?
individual differences in personality and mental processes that concern how we perceive and know our worlds
What dod biological aspects deal with?
how the physical body contributes to mind and behavior ie neurochemical prtocesses and genetics
What is a script
A schema about sequences
What is brain imaging?
assessing changes of metabolic activity
What is the mind?
what the brain does, refers f mental activity, such as your thoughts and feelings, the fives senses are the mind in action
What is psychological science?
the study of mind, brain, and behavior
What is behavior?
DEcribes a wide variety of actions
what is easier to do with old information?
recognize it versus recall it
What are neurotransmitters?
Communicate messages between nerve cells
What do we know about localization?
There is some localization of function
How has the brain evolved?
Over millions of years to solve problems related to survival and reproduction
What can happen to an adaptation if the environment changes?
Can become maladaptive
Reading books, driving cars, using computers, and talking on the phone can be considered what?
by products of adaptive solutions to earlier adaptive problems
What do westerners see: forest or trees?
forest
What is the difference between eastern and western cultures?
Eastern is more interdependent and emphasize need for self improvement, vs west which is independent and emphasize personal strengthd
What is pleasant music associated with?
An increase in serotonin
Does music use similar processes to auditory?
possibly, but also different, some lose ability to hear tones and melody, but not speech or environmental sounds
What is Amusia?
Can't recognize familiar tunes
What might influence jazz liking?
genetics
What is the nature vs nurture debate?
arguments concerning whether physchological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired througth education, experience, and culture
Both are important, but science wants to find when which is important
What is schizophrenia?
a disorder in which people have unusual thoughts, experience unusual sensations
What is the mind body problem?
whether the mind and body are seperate or distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the physical brain
Where does the term common sense come from?
sensus communis, where da vinci believed was the home of thought and judgement
What is dualism?
The idea that the mind exist seperately from the physical body, but still intergtwined, also suggested the body could impact the mind
What provides the basis for evolutionary development?
individual differences
What is introspection?
a systematic examination of subjective and mental experiences that required people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts?
What is structurualism?
the conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements
What was the goal of structuralistS?
goal was to develop pure science of psychology with its own self contained vocab and set of rules
What is the stream of consciousness?
continuous series of ever changing thoughts, he stressed the importance of the mind's usefulness to people
What is functionalism?
An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose or function of mind and behavior, mind came into existance to help orghgnaism adapt to environmental demnds
What does the progressive approach to education emphasize?
divergent thinking and creativity rather than rote learning of conventional knowledge that might incorrect anway
What is the Gesalt theory?
The whole of personalal experinece is much greater than the sum of the parts (we see a triangle not three lines)
The mind percieves the wolrd in an organized fashion that cannot be broken down into its constituent elements
What is the phenomenological approach?
unstructured reporting of experience, referring to the totality of subjective conscious experience
how is human behavior determined?
By mental processes
What is the unconcious?
mental processes that operate at a level below consciousness
What is psychoanalysis
trying to bring the contents of the patients unconscious awarreness into conscious awareness so that their conflcits could be dealt with in a constructive manner
What is free association?
simply talk about whatever they wanted
What is behaviorism?
emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behavior (want to observe things that can be observed)
What is the cognitive psychology?
concerned with high order mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memoery and decision making
What is social psychology?
focuses on the power of situation and how people are shaped through their interactions with others (authority, behavior, group behavior)
What is Lewin's field theory?
emphasized the interplay between people--their biology, habitsw and beliefs
Why is drug therapy less preferable?
has possible side effects
What is humanistic?
each person is a unique individual with specific issues and needs
What do social psychologists focus on?
influences that other situations and people have on how we think act and feel
What do personality psychologists focus on?
interested in individual preferences
What are development psychologists interested in?
changes in mind and behavior over the life span
What is cognitive psychology concentrated on?
mental processes such as thinking, perceiving, remembering,
What is cognitive neuroscience?
seek to understand the brain systems invovled
What do behavioral neuroscientists study?
The biological mechanisms responsible for behavior
What do experimental psychologists like?
study abnormal or disorder behavior
What type of marriage partners fo people choose?
partners they expect will best meet their emtotion, sexual, and supprt needs
What is critical thinking?
A systematic way of evaluating information in order to reach reasonable conclusions
What does science assume?
The world works in an orderly fashion based on physical laws
What is the scientific method?
an objective examination of the natural world
What is replication?
repition of an experiment to confirmt he results
What is a theory?
idea or model of how somehtin in thw world works
What is a hypothesis?
specific prediction of what should be observed
What is research?
involves systmatic and careful collection of data
What is serendipity?
the unexpected stumbling upon something important
What is a confound?
Anything affecting a dependent variable that may unintentionall vary between the different experimental conditions of a study
What is random assignment?
The procedure for placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in which each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the inderpendent variable
What is correlational study?
research method that examines how varibales are naturally related to the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them, cannot show causation
What is the third variable problem?
Whent he experimenter cannot directly manipilate the independent variable and therefore cannot be confident that another unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the dependent variable
What are descriptive studies?
a research method that involves observing and noting the behavior of people or other qanimals in order to provide a systematic and objective analysis of behavior
What is naturalistic observation?
the observer is apart from and makes no attempt to alter or change the situation
What is participant observation?
the researcher is actively involved in the situation
When are descriptive techniques useful?
valuable in the early stages of research, when researchers are simply trying to see whether a phenomenon exists
what are observational techniques?
A research method of careful and systematic assessment and coding of overt behavior
What three decisions do you have to make when doing an observational study?
In lab or out lab, how should the data be collected, should the observer be visible
What is reactivity?
The effect that occurs when the knowledge that one is being observced alters the behavior being observed, people feel compelled to make a positive impression
What is the Hawthorne effect?
refers to changes in behavior that occur when people know that others are observing them
What is observer bias?
systematic errors in observation that occir die to an observers expectations
What is the experimenter expectancy effect?
Actual change in behavior of people or animals being observed that is due to observer bias
Decribe open ended questions vs close ended questions?
open allow respondents to answer in as much detail as they feel appropriate vs closed which has a fixed number of options
What are self report methods?
A method of data collection in which people are asked to provide informatiomn about themselves such as in questionnaires or surveys
What do scientists want their finding to do?
Generalize or apply to to people beyond those individuals who are in the study
What is the population?
The group of interest
What is the sample?
the subset of people that are studied
What is sampling?
The process by which people are selected from the population to be members of the sample, researchers often use random sampling
What is socially desirable responding?
When people respond to a question in a way that is most socially acceptable or that makes them look good
how do people tend to describe themselves?
in especially positive ways and this occurs because people beleive things about themseklves that may not actually be true
What is often a problem with cross cultural research?
wording
What is a case study?
involved the intensive examination of one person, typically one who is unusual (most commonly done on thos ethat have a brain injury or psychological disorder)
What factors are linked to a murderer?
early childhood abuse, psychiatric disorders and frontal lobe dysfunction
What is response performance?
A research method in which researchers quantify perceptual or cogntiive processes in response to a specific stimulus, infer how a stimulus is processed
What is reaction time?
the speed of a response
What is the Stroop effect?
Takes longer to name the color od words printed in conflicting colors
What is response accuracy?
How well a stimulus was perceived
What are stimulus judgements?
making judgements regarding the different stimuli with which they are presented
What are psychophysiological assessment?
researchers examine how chnages in bodily functions are associated with bheavior or mental state
What are polygraphs?
lie detectors, which assess these bodily states under the assumption that people who are lying are experiencing more arousal and therefore are more likely to show physical signs of stress
What is electrophysiology?
A method od data collection that measures elcetrical activity in the brain to see how it is related to cognitive and perceptual tasks
What is an EEG?
electroencephalogram, measures brain activity
Does alcoholism have a strong genetic component?
yes
What is a PET?
positron emission tomogrpahy is a method of brain imaging that assesses metabolic activity by using a readioactive substance injected into the bloodstream, blood flow increases to most active regions, by subtracting one image from the other experimenters obtain a different image
What us MRI?
Magnetic resonance imaging which is a method of brain imaging that produces high quality images of the brain, field causes the protons in the brain to line up with it, then energy is released and can be measured, gives high resolution image
What is an fMRI?
functional MRI, examines chnages in activity of the working human brain, asses changes in the oxygen level of blood
What is one o the central assumption's of Watson's behaviorism?
humans are subject to the same laws of nature as other animals
What are Institional REview Boards?
Groups of people repsonible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of scince and provides for the pjuscial and emotional well being of reseach participants
What is informed consent?
a process in which people are given full information about a study which allows them to make a knowledgable decision about whether or not to participate
What is deception?
involves either misleading participants about the goals of the study or not fully revealing what will take place because knwoing the specific goals of the study may later behavior
What is debriefing?
explanation after the study following deception
what is the risk benefit ratio?
whether the research is important enought to warrant placing participants aat risk
What is validity?
refers to whether the data you collect address your question,
What is reliabiltiy?
the extent to which a measure is stable and consistent ofer time in similar condition
What is accuracy?
the extent to which an experimental measure is free from error
What is random error?
although an error is introduced into each measurement the actual value of error is different each time (answer can turn out right in the end), tend to average out
What is systematic error?
the amount of error introduced into each measure is constantr
What is central tendency?
represents the typical behavior of the group as a whole
What is variability?
how dispersed the values are from each other and from the mean
What is standard deviation?
a statisitical measure of how far away each value is on average from the mean
What is correlation?
a statistical procedure that provides a numerical value between +1 and -1 indicating thee strength and direction of the relation between two variables,
What is negative correlation?
one increases in value, the other decreases
What is postive correlation?
increase and decrease together
What are inferential statistics?
A set of procedurs used to make judgments about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers
When can something be labled statistically significant?
If the results of the study fall below the predetermied probablity value then the difference in means is labled S>.S>
What does non significant mean?
the observed difference is likely due to chance
What do physiological processes affect?
behavior thought and emotion
What does DNA consist of?
two intertwined strands of molecules of sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen
What is gene expression?
the process by which the gene produces of RNA and then protein
What does the environment determine about genes?
when and how to produce certain proteins
How many genes arte in our genome?
30,000
What are alleles?
the two versions of the gene
What is created at the moment on conception?
A unique genotype
What is the basis of the life cycle?
cell division
What is industrial melanism?
In areas of the world that adre heavy in soot or smog the butterflies tend to be darkers
Are most dominant gene disorders lethal?
Yes
What are the symptoms of Huntington's disease?
Leads to mental deterioration and abnormal bodty movements, not expressed till later in life, cretaes a protein that attacks the brain
Why was knock out gene models not an option for Huntington's?
Gene involved serves other vital brain functions
What is behavioral genetics?
the study of how genes and the environment interact to influence physiological activity
Monozygotic vs. Dizygotic twins
mono=1 egg
How does growing up in the same household influence traits?
has very little impact
What is heredity?
transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring by means of genes
What is heriability?
a statistical estimate of the fraction of observed measure of the overall amount of difference among people in a population that is caused by differences in heredity, refers to variation among individuals, reers o population not individuals, concenred only with the extent to which people differ
What do low levels of MAO lead to?
agressive behavior, appeared to be especially susceptible to early childhood maltreatment
How is the phenotype shaped?
genes predispose behaviors that elicit different responses and the subsequent interactions shape it
RNAi
prevents gene expression by silencing the DNA instructions to make proteins, could be used to silence the production of specific production of brain damaging agents
What is a neuron?
the basic unit of the nervous system that operates through electrical impilses which communicate with other neurons through chemical signals, neurons receive, integrate, and transmit info from the nervou system
What are dentrites?
Branch-like extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons
What is the cell body?
in the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and processed, and integrated, site of metabolisma nd genetic action
What is the axon?
a long narrow outgrowth of neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons
what is a nerve?
a bundle of axons that carry information between the brain and the body
What are terminal buttons?
small nodules at the ends of axons, receive electrical impulses and release chemicals signals into the synapse
What is the synapse?
the site for chemical communication between neurons, chemiucal leave one neuron cross the synapse, and then pass signals along to the dentries of other neurons
What are sensory neurons?
detect information from the physical world and pass that info along to the brain usually via the spinal chord
What are afferent neurons?
sensory, send info to the brain
What does efferent mean?
FRom brain to body
What are motor neurons?
direct muscles to contract or relax, most are efferent
What are interneurons?
communicate within local or short distanced circuits, typically within a specific brain region
What neurons control movement?
sensory and motor
What are somatosensory nerves?
nerves that provide information from muscles, general term for sensations experienced from within the body
What are neural networks?
Neurons selectively communicate with other neurons to form circuits
What is an action potentional?
the neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemical from the terminal buttons
What happens when the neuron is not active?
the inside and outside of the neuron differ electrically because of the balance of ions in the intracellular fluid
What is the resting membrane potential?
the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active
What are microelectrodes?
extremely tiny devides that register electric currents
What is polarization?
the differential electrical charge inside and outside of the neuron
What creates the electrical energy necessary to power the action potential?
polarization across the membrane
What are the two types of ions involved? How are the controlled?
Sodium and potassium, controlled by a gating mechanism
What does selectively permeable?
it allows some types of ions to cross more easily than others, thus there is more K+ inside the neuron than sodium
What doe firing mean?
passign a signal along the axon
What is excitatory signal?
lead to depolarization which inceases the likelihood that the neuron will fire
What is an inhibitoary signal?
leads to hyperpolarization whih decreases the likelihood it will fire
What does depolarization do?
causes a change in the permeability of the cell membrane which opens the gates of the sodium channels so sodium rushes in and the influx of sodium causes the inside to become more positive than the outside
What does hyperpolarization do?
makes sodium channels resistant to the passage of sodiunm
When is an action potential generated?
when the total amount of depolarization surpasses the neuron's threshold
What is propagation?
when the depolarization of teh cell membrane moves along the axong like a wave causing adjacent sodium channels to open
What happens when sodium comes in?
Potassium goes out
What is absolute refractory period?
impossible for the neuron to fire so that action potentials only move in one direction
What is the relative refractory period?
The neuron can fire but only in response to especially strong signal (bombarded by excitatory signals))
What is the all or none principal?
the principle whereby a neuron fires with the same potency each time, although frequency can vary, it either fires or does not, it cannot partially fire
What is the myelin sheath?
a fatty material that encases axons, insulates sections of the axon
What are the nodes of ranvier?
small gaos of exposed axon between the segments of myelin sheath where action potentials are transmitted
What is saltatory conduction?
pause briefly only at nodes of ranvier, jump
What is MS?
decay of myelin sheath, possible an autoimmune disorder, more common in cold climates
What is the synaptic cleft?
small space between neurons that contains extracellular fluid
What is the presynaptic and post synpatic?
pre-sends the signal
post-receives the signal
What are vesicles?
contain neurotransmitters
What are receptors?
in neurons, specialized protein molecules on the postsynpatic membrane that neurotransmitters bind to after passing the synaptoc cleft
What can mimic neurotransmitters?
drugs and toxins
What is reuptake?
process whereby the neurotransmitter is taken back into the presumaptic terminal buttons thereby stopping its activity, most common
What is enzyme deactivation?
the process where the neurotransmitter is destroyed by an enzyme thereby terminating its activity
What is an autoreceptor?
a neuron's own neurotransmitter receptors which regulate the release of neurotransmitters
What are agonists?
any drug that enhances the actions of a specific neurotransmitter
What are antagonists?
inhibit the action of a neurotransmitter
What are the effects of a neurotransmitter the property of?
Not the chemicalsm, but their receptors
What is Ach?
the neurotransmitter responsible for motor control at the junction between nervesand muscles, aldo involved in mental processes such as learning, sleeping, memory, and dreaming, excites skeletal muscles and inhibits heart muscle
What is curare?
competes with ACh
What is botulism?
inhibits the release of Ach
What does nicotine do?
excites Ach receptors, can heighten attention, improve problem solving, and faciliate memory
What are monoamines?
group of neurotransmitters synthesized within the neuron from single aminoacids that are involved in a variety of psychological activities, regulate states of arousal and affect feelings to motivate behavior, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine
What is epinephrine?
primarily in body, causes bursts of energy after an exciting event
What is norepinephrine?
involved in states of arousal, alertness, and vigilance, good for fine tuning attention, inhibits responsivenes to weak synaptic inputs
What is serotonin?
wide range of stuff, including emotional syates, impulse control and dreaming, low levels make sad and anxious moods and food cravings
What is dopamine?
involed in reward, motivation, and motor control
What does coke do?
blocks the reuptake of dopamine resulting in feelings of pleasure
What is Parkinsons's?
A neurological disorder that seems to be caused by dopamine depletion, marked by muscular rigidity, tremors, and difficulty initiating voluntary action
What is GABA?
the primary inhibitory transmitter in the nervous system, hyperpolarizes postsynaptic membranes
What is glutamate
the primary excitatory transmitter in the nervous system, aid in leaning and memory by strengthening synaptic connections
What are astrocytes?
type of glial cell, important role in NS, changes in calcium ions cause the release of glutamte
What are peptides?
chains of two or more, act like classic neurotransmitters or modiufy the quality of the neurotransmitter with which they are released ie CCK, endorphins and substance P
What is CCK?
the peptide found in highest concentration in the cerebral cortex, it plays a role in learning and memory, pain, and exploratory behavior, triggers panic attacks, promotes satiety
What are endorphins
peptides involved in natural pain reduction and reward, helps animals preform even if they are in pain
What accounts for the placebo effect?
endorphins,
What is substance P.?
a peptide that acts as a neurotransmitter and is inolved in pain and perception, helps transmit signals about pain to the brain
What is capsaicin?
chili peppers, releases substance P. and makes mouth burn, water spreads this around and makes worse
What is the CNS?
the brain and the spinal chord
What is the PNS?
all nerve cells in the body that are not part of the central nervous system, includes the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Is the spinal cord capable of reflex action?
Yes!
what is the spinal chord's main job?
To send and receive signals from the brain and relay them to the body
How is the CNS separated from the rest of the body?
the blood brain barrier, which refers to the selectively permeable nature of blood vessels throughout the CNA that prevents certain toxins and poisons in the blood from enter the brain
What is the somatic nervous system?
A major component of the the PNS which transmits sensory signals to the CNS via nerves
What is the autonomic nervous system?
a mjor component of the {PNS which regulates the body's internal environment by stimulating glands and by maintaining internal organs such as the heart, gall bladder, and stomach
What is the sympathetic division?
a division of the AND that prepeares the body for action, fight or flight
What is the parasympathetic?
a division of the AND that reutnr the body to its resting state
What does exual arousal heavily rely on?
activation of the sympathetic division
What happens to people who worry all the time?
In a constant state of arousal
What is the endocrine system?
communication system that uses hormones to influence thoughts, behaviors, and actions
What are hormones?
chemical substances released into the blood stream by endocrine glands, effects can last for long time and affect multiple targets
What are the gonads?
the main endocrine glands involved in sexual behavior
What is the hypothalamus?
plays an extremely important role in behaviors related to survival and reproduction
What is the pituitary glands?
at base of hypothalamus, cotnrols release of hormones,
What is learning?
an enduring chnage in behavior that results from experience
What is conditioning?
environmental stimuli and some sort of behavioral response somehow become connected
Classical conditoning
occurs when two types of events go together
Operant conditioning?
behavior leads to a particular outcome
What did behaviorism state?
that the environment and its associated effects on organisms were the sole determinants of learning
What is the neutral stimulus?
previously unrelated
What is classical conditioning?
a type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response?
What is the unconditioned response?
a response that does not have to be learned such as a reflex
What is an unconditioned stimulus?
a stimulus that elicits a reponse without prior learning
What is the conditioned stimulus?
a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place
What is a conditioned response?
a response that has been learned?
Which will cause a greater reaction the US or the CS?
US
what is acquisitation?
the gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditoned stimuli, initial learning of behavior
When does the strongest conditioning occur?
When there is a a very brief delay between the CS and US
What is extinction
a process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus
What is spontaneous recovery?
a process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus
What is stimulus generalization?
Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical gto the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response
what is stimulus discrimination?
A learned tendency to differentiate between two similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimuluis and the other is no
What is second order conditioning?
a condition stimulus does not become directly associated with an unconditioned stimulus, but rather ith other stimuli that themselves are associated with the US, occurs implicitly
what is a phobia?
an acquired fear that is out of proprtion to the real threat of an obkect or a situation
What is fear conditioning? What is needed for this?
classically conditioned to fear neutral objects, need your amygdala
What is tolerance?
When an addict needs more and more
What is equipotentiality?
all stimuli are equally capable of producing conditioning
What is biological preparedness?
the idea that animals are biologically conditioned to fear some objects
What is the REscorla Wagner model?
a cognitive model of classical conditioning that states that the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is expected, if more suprisingly the animals puts greater thought into it
What is the blocking effect?
a conditioned stimulus can prevent the acquisition of a new conditioned stimulus
What does instrumental mean?
done for a purpose
What is operant conditioning?
a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future
What is the law of effect?
any behavior that leads to satisfaction is more likely to occur again and that those that lead to annoying state are less likely to recur
What is a reinforcer?
a stimulus following a response that increases the likelihood that response will be repeated
What is shaping?
involves shaping behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior
What is the Skinner Box?
box with lever for the rat
What is the primary reinforcer?
reinforcers that are innately reinforcing such as those that satisfy biological needs
What is a secondary reinforcer?
events or objecrs that become reinforcers through their repeated pairings with primary reinforcers
What is premack's theory?
accountrs for individual difference, no universal enforcers, can use an awesome thing to enforce a sucky thing
What is punishment?
A stimulus following a response that decreases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
What is positive reinforcement?
the increase in the probability if a behavior's beign repeated following the administration of a pelasureable stimulus, referred to as a reward
What is negative reinforcement
the increase in the probability of a behavior being repeated through the removal of an adverse stimulus
What is positive punishment?
punishment that occurs with administration of a stimulus that decreases the probability of a behavior reoccuring, getting a shock or a ticket
What is negative punishment
punishment that occurs with the removal of a stimulus that decreases the chance a behavior will occur
What is continuous reinforcement?
A type of learning in which the behavior is reinforced each time it occurs
What is partial reinforcement?
behavior is reinforced intermittenly
What is ratio schedule?
a schedule in which reinforcement is based on the number of times the behavior occurs
What are interval schedules?
reinforcement is based on a specific unit of time
What is a fixed schedule?
reinforcement is consistenly provided following a specific nuymber or time
What is a variabl schedule?
reinforcement is applied at different rates at different times
What is the partial reinforcement extinction effect?
the greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcemnt than continuous
When is continous reinforcement good?
For establishing/ acquiring behavior
What is behavioral modification?
refers to using the techniques of operant conditioning to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desired ones
When do animals have a hard time learning behavior?
If it runs counter to their evolutionary adaption
When is conditioning most effective?
when the association between the behavioral response and the reinforcement is similar to the built in predispositions of the animal
What are cognitive maps?
visual/spatial mental representations of the environment
What is latent learning?
Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement
What is insight learning?
a form of problem solving, solution emerges after a period of inaction or following contemplation of the problem
What is the optimal foraging theory?
how animals in the wild choose to provide their own schedules of reinforcemetn, animals will sometimes act in a risky fashion
How else do we learn?
by observing
What is a meme?
knowledge transferred within a culture, often learned by watching
What is observational learning
Learning that occurs when behaviors are acquired or modified following exposure to other preforming the behavior
What does bobo tell us?
exposure to media violence may increase the likelihood that children will act violently
Can fear be learned through observation?
yes
What is modeling?
Imitation of behavior through observational learning (is model reinforced for performing behavior)
What is vicarious learning?
occurs whern people learn about the consequences of an action by observing others being reqard or punished for performing the action
What are mirror neurons?
Neurons in the promoter cortex that are activated during observation of other performing an action, would be activated if the action was performed
Does the firing of the mirror neurons lead to the behavior?
No
What might mirror neurons also be important for?
human ability to communicate through language
Where do some believe speech came from?
gestures
Does correlation prove causation?
No
What is Intracranial self stimulation?
A procedure in which animals are able to sellf administer electrical shock to specific areas of the brain, pleasure centers
What does ICSS activate?
dopamine receptors , interfering with dopamine eliminates self stimulation as well as other naturally motivated behaviors sicj as feeeding drinking a fucking
What is the nucleus accumbens?
pleasure results from dopamine receptors being activated
When is more dopamine released?
under deprives vs nondeproved conditions
What does cells that fire together wire together mean?
the firing of one cell becomes increasingly liekly to caause the firing of another
What is habituation?
a decrease in behavioral repsonse following repeated exposure to a nonthreatening stimulus
What is the orienting response?
when an animal encounters a novel stimulus it pays attention to it
What is sensitization?
An increase in behavioral response following exposure to a threatening stimulus
What leads to habituation ans sensitization?
alterations in the functioning of the synapse, presynaptic neurons alter their release of neurotransmitters
What is LTP?
Long term potentiation, the strengthening of a synaptic connection so that postsynaptic neurons are more easily activated, may be cellular basis for learnin
How might fear conditioning produce long lasting learning?
through the induction of LTP
What is NMDA receptor?
required for LTP, only opens if two nearby neurons fire at the same time
What were the doogie mice?
preformed better with improved NMDA
What is Hebbian Learning
cells that fire together wire together
What is the Parallel distributed model
connectionist model, everything going on at the same time
Is the human brain parallel
yes very
how long can you be alone? how long did volunteers last?
1 person lasted 20 minutes
3 remained for 2 days
1 lasted 8 days, but could have gone longer
what is the basic human motive?
the need to belong
Human survival relies on groups so what does the adaptive social brain worry about?
Friends vs. foe
Trust or not trust (cheater detectors)
Fear of being excluded
Do social bonds form easily?
YES!!!
Minimal group paradigm
Simply being near people
Decribes bonds forming stress
Doesn’t make sense from classical conditioning
War friendships are very strong
People like each other more after both receiving painful shocks
What is a major social issue in America?
1 in 4 Americans report they have felt very lonely or remote from other people in past two weeks
What arethe issues for truly lonely people
Social anxious, shy, awkward, uncomfortable
Central problem is social skills
Ask few questions, appear disinterested
Occasionally disclose far too much, too fast
Focus on themselves so much that they fail to notice nonverbal cues in others OR focus so much on nonverbals of others that they fail to attend to the meaning in conversation
Need training on how to be good listeners
Which factors determine whether two people are friends?
Proximity
Similarity
Familiarity
Reciprocity
Personal Characteristics
Decribe the effects of proximity on social bonds?
Importance of functional distance
Festinger, Schachter & Back, 1950
MIT Dorms, assigned at random
Asked to list three closest friends
Frequency of physical exposure and contact
Friends and the alphabet
Maryland Police academy - assigned to dorms and classes by alphabet
Six months later asked to name best friend
Each person chose someone within 5 letters of last name
Proximity doesn’t guarantee liking
Interpersonal violence occurs for people in frequent contact
Decribe familiarity?
We like those with whom we are familiar
What is neophobia?
First reactions are typically negative
Eiffel Tower, Ledyard bridge balls
What is the mere exposure effect?>
Mere exposure effect
Show people pictures of faces 25 times or just once (briefly)
People prefer the face they saw more often
Effect shows even for unknown objects such as Chinese characters
Occurs even when people are not aware they have seen the image
What is important for marketing?
familiarity
What are the limits of familiarity?
Get tired if there is overexposure
Absence can make the heart grow fonder
How does similarity effect relaitonships?
We like those who are similar to us
Share attitudes, values, interests, personalities
Similar roommates like each other more
Matching principle - tend to marry those who are similar in appearance and values
What is the phantom other technique?
Phantom Other Technique
We like those who are similar
Read a questionnaire from someone who seems similar
We like them
Not if person is emotionally disturbed
“I don’t know if it matters or not, but last Fall I had a nervous breakdown and I had to be hospitalized for a while. I’ve been seeing a psychiatrist ever since”
Implications for public health messages “people just like us”
Paradoxical effects
What is reciprocity?
We like people who like us
Liking goes up when we hear people say nice things about us
But, need to be selective
What is the gain-loss hypothesis?>
A gain in esteem in a potent reward
Like those who seem picky and cold at first
Playing hard to get
We like to be got
How do personal characteristics effect?
Personality and personal qualities
Physical Appearance
What are the three personal qualities we really like?
Warmth
Positive attitudes
Competence
We like those who are skilled and intelligent
Not “too perfect” - some flaws are good
Sincerity/Trustworthy
Someone we can trust
Judgments made in 100 ms. match consensus judgments
May rely on intact amygdala
In terms of self esteem who is liked?
Dyadic interactions
No differences in how much people liked others as a function of SE
But, high SE believed that others liked them more than they actually did
Evidence suggests that in typical situations there are no differences in liking for people as a function of self-esteem.
What happens following a threat?
However, following threat, people with high self-esteem may behave in ways that would lead to less liking.
how does attractiveness play a role?
Mothers
Treat unattractive children differently

“What is beautiful is good”
Stereotype
Teacher ratings
Judged likely to do better in life
Biased treatment
Larger salaries, lower prison sentences, more dates, greater career opportunities, etc.
What sizes are men and women attracted to?
average
Decribe familiarity?
We like those with whom we are familiar
What is neophobia?
First reactions are typically negative
Eiffel Tower, Ledyard bridge balls
What is the mere exposure effect?>
Mere exposure effect
Show people pictures of faces 25 times or just once (briefly)
People prefer the face they saw more often
Effect shows even for unknown objects such as Chinese characters
Occurs even when people are not aware they have seen the image
What is important for marketing?
familiarity
What are the limits of familiarity?
Get tired if there is overexposure
Absence can make the heart grow fonder
How does similarity effect relaitonships?
We like those who are similar to us
Share attitudes, values, interests, personalities
Similar roommates like each other more
Matching principle - tend to marry those who are similar in appearance and values
What is the phantom other technique?
Phantom Other Technique
We like those who are similar
Read a questionnaire from someone who seems similar
We like them
Not if person is emotionally disturbed
“I don’t know if it matters or not, but last Fall I had a nervous breakdown and I had to be hospitalized for a while. I’ve been seeing a psychiatrist ever since”
Implications for public health messages “people just like us”
Paradoxical effects
What is reciprocity?
We like people who like us
Liking goes up when we hear people say nice things about us
But, need to be selective
What is the gain-loss hypothesis?>
A gain in esteem in a potent reward
Like those who seem picky and cold at first
Playing hard to get
We like to be got
How do personal characteristics effect?
Personality and personal qualities
Physical Appearance
What are the three personal qualities we really like?
Warmth
Positive attitudes
Competence
We like those who are skilled and intelligent
Not “too perfect” - some flaws are good
Sincerity/Trustworthy
Someone we can trust
Judgments made in 100 ms. match consensus judgments
May rely on intact amygdala
In terms of self esteem who is liked?
Dyadic interactions
No differences in how much people liked others as a function of SE
But, high SE believed that others liked them more than they actually did
Evidence suggests that in typical situations there are no differences in liking for people as a function of self-esteem.
What happens following a threat?
However, following threat, people with high self-esteem may behave in ways that would lead to less liking.
how does attractiveness play a role?
Mothers
Treat unattractive children differently

“What is beautiful is good”
Stereotype
Teacher ratings
Judged likely to do better in life
Biased treatment
Larger salaries, lower prison sentences, more dates, greater career opportunities, etc.
What sizes are men and women attracted to?
average
What do mean prefer?
Men prefer female with medium-sized legs, medium-sized breasts, and medium to small buttocks
What do women prefer?
Women prefer men with average to thin legs, medium thin lower torso, medium wide upper torso
What happens after men read playboy?
context change?
Asked to evaluate women after reading Playboy
Ratings decreased
Same effect after watching Charlie’s Angels
Women show effect after rating high status males
What did Mickey Gilley say?
members of the opposite sex are seen as more attractive as the time to decide whether to interact with them decreases - “all the girls get prettier at closing time”
What did they find with people being alone?
Amazing difference, we differ quite a bit in the way in which we are social
what are people good at?
meeting people
what impression do lonely people give off?
Give off an impression that they couldn’t care less
In what manner do we disclose info
More disclosure is how intimacy forms
What's up with marriage these days?
More disclosure is how intimacy forms
Who do often dilike the most?
people who personify the traits we like least about ourselves
how is proximity important?
Proximity is important, functional distance too, frequent contact
What compliments are favored?
indirect
Why do we like picky people?
We like people that are really picky, but then in the end they like us
We want people to picky and selective and pick us
When do relationships work out for the best?
People have complimentry differences works the best
What can annoy us?
If someone is too perfect
Why did the STD thing backfire/
You have STD you’re not like me at all, we don’t like to have people just like us if there’s something wrong with
what can we judge very quickly?
Can very quickly judge trustworthiness and beauty
Decribe beauty?
Treat beautiful people special, intelligence has no relation, but there is a social skill thing
Why did the STD thing backfire/
You have STD you’re not like me at all, we don’t like to have people just like us if there’s something wrong with
what can we judge very quickly?
Can very quickly judge trustworthiness and beauty
Decribe beauty?
Treat beautiful people special, intelligence has no relation, but there is a social skill thing