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52 Cards in this Set

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What is an example of how proteins function for regulation?
Insulin
What is an example of how proteins function for signal transduction?
Kinases/phophatases
G-proteins
What is an example of how proteins function for storage?
Ovalbumin
Ferritin
What is an example of how proteins function for transport?
Hemoglobin
Serum albumin
What is an example of how proteins function as protection?
Immunoglobulins
Venoms
With respect to chirality, which form predominates in living cells, L- or D- form?
L-form
What are some of the less common amino acids?
Selenocysteine (thioredoxin reductase)
Hydroxylysine/hydroxyproline (collagen)
Proteins/peptides are always numbered and displayed ___-terminal to ____-terminal
N-terminal to C-terminal
How many AA make up an oligopeptide?
12-20 AA
What is required for protein synthesis (translation)
mRNA template
tRNAs charged with appropriate amino acids
Ribosomes
3 letter DNA (mRNA) code specifying an amino acid
Codon
The Genetic code is:
1.
2.
3.
1. Unambiguous (each codon specifies 1 aa)
2. Degenerate (multiple codons specify same aa)
3. Wobbly (1st 2 bases sufficient to encode most aa)
This is useful for purifying mRNA from other cellular RNA of eukaryotes
The polyA tail of mRNA
Has a cloverleaf structure with an 'anticodon' which will recognized the cognate codon on the mRNA
tRNA
tRNAs are named for: ________
their specific amino acid
Synthetases are specific for amino acids but may recognize _______________.
Isoacceptor tRNAs
Charging of tRNA requires _____
ATP
A large complex of many proteins and small RNA
Ribosomes
The start codon
Initiation complex assembles
Ribosomes moves in the ___'--> ___' direction along the template mRNA
5'-->3'
Protein is synthesized in the __--> ___ direction along the mRNA template
N-->C
blocks binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to A-site of ribosome

acts only on bacteria
Tetracycline
Prevents the transition from initiation complex to chain-elongating ribosome and also causes miscoding

acts only on bacteria
Streptomycin
Blocks the peptidyl transferase reaction on ribosomes

acts only on bacteria
Chloramphenicol
Blocks the translocation reaction on ribosomes

acts only on bacteria
Erythromycin
Blocks initiation of RNA chains by binding to RNA polymerase (prevents RNA synthesis)
Rifamycin
Causes premature release of nascent polypeptide chains by its addition to growing chain end

Acts on bacteria and eukaryotes
Puromycin
Binds to DNA and blocks the movement of RNA polymerase (prevents RNA synthesis)

Acts on bacteria and eukaryotes
Actinomycin D
Blocks the translocation reaction on ribosomes

Acts on eukaryotes but NOT bacteria
Cycloheximide
Blocks the peptidyl transferase reaction on ribosomes

Acts on eukaryotes but NOT bacteria
Anisomycin
Blocks mRNA synthesis by binding preferntially to RNA polymerase II

Acts on eukaryotes but NOT bacteria
a-Amanitin
What are the 6 classes of enzymes?
1. Oxidoreductases (dehydrogenases)
2. Transferases
3. Hydrolases
4. Lyases
5. Isomerases
6. Ligases
Which class of enzymes:
catalyze oxidation-reduction rxn?
Oxidoreductases (dehydrogenases)
Which class of enzymes:
Catalyze group transfer rxn?
Transferases
Which class of enzymes:
Catalyze hydrolysis rxns where H20 is the acceptor of the transfered group?
Hydrolases
Which class of enzymes:
Catalyze lysis of a substrate, generating a double bond in a nonhydrolytic, nonoxidative elimination
Lyases
These catalyze the addition to a double bond; is the reverse rxn of a lyase
Synthases
Which class of enzymes:
Catalyze isomerization rxn?
Isomerases
Which class of enzymes:
Catalyze ligation (the joining of 2 substrates)
Ligases/synthetases
Which class of enzymes:
Requires chemical energy
Ligases/synthetases
Indicates the speed or efficiency of a rxn
Rate constant (k)
Rate of a reaction (varies with reactant concentration)
Velocity (v)
Complex formed when specific substrates fit into the enzyme active site
Enzyme-substrate complex (ES)
When [S] is _________ [E], every enzyme binds a molecule of substrate

(CHOOSE ONE: greater than; less than; equal to)
greater than
When enzyme is saturated with substrate, what does the rate of the reaction depend on?
Only on the [E]
rate constant for formation of product from ES
k2
Represents noncovalent association/dissociation of substrate from enzyme active site
K1 and K-1
The slope of the initial linear portion of the progress curve for an enzyme-catalyzed rxn is the ______.
Initial velocity (vo)
Rate of reaction _____ when twice as much enzyme is used.q
doubles
When an enzyme is saturated with substrate, ________ is reached.
Maximum velocity (V max)
Km
Michaelis constant
At low [S] rxn is ______ with respect [S]
First order