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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
201. Enzyme of Insulin receptor?
a. Tyrosine kinase activity.
202. Effects on liver, muscle, and fat of Insulin binding the insulin receptors (tyrosine kinase activity)?
a. Liver: ↑ glucose stored as glycogen
b. Muscle: ↑ glycogen and protein synthesis, ↑ K+ uptake.
c. Fat: aids TG storage
203. 3 rapid acting insulins?
a. Lispro and aspart
b. Regular insulin
204. Action of NPH insulin?
a. Intermediate
205. 2 long acting insulins?
a. Glargine and Detemir
206. Clinical uses of Insulin?
a. DM I and II, gestational diabetes
b. Life-threatening hyperkalemia
c. Stress-induced hyperglycemia.
207. MOA of the Sulfonureas?
a. Bind to the potassium channel and close it causing depolarization.
b. This triggers insulin release via ↑ Ca2+ influx
208. Clinical use of Sulfonureas?
a. Stimulate the release of endogenous insulin in DM II.
b. Require some islet function, so useless in DM I.
209. 2 First generation Sulfonureas?
a. Tolbutamide
b. Chlorpropamide
210. 3 Second generation Sulfonureas?
a. Glyburide
b. Glimepiride
c. Glipizide
211. Toxicity of First gen Sulfonureas?
a. Disulfiram-like effects.
212. Toxicity of Second gen Sulfonureas?
a. Hypoglycaemia
213. Only biguanide and its MOA?
a. Metformin
b. Exact mechanism is unknown
c. ↓ gluconeogenesis!!!!!
d. ↑ glycolysis
e. ↑ peripheral glucose uptake (insulin sensitivity)
214. Clinical use of Metformin (biguanide)?
a. Oral
b. Can be used in pts WITHOUT islet function.
215. Most serious AE of Metformin!?!
a. Lactic acidosis. So contraindicated in renal failure.
216. 2 Glitazones/Thiazolidinediones?
a. Pioglitazone
b. Rosiglitazone
217. Action of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone?
a. ↑ Insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue.
b. Binds to PPAR-γ nuclear transcription regulator.
218. Clinical use of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone?
a. Used as MONOtherapy in type 2 DM or COMBINED with above agents.
219. AE of Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone?
a. GI disturbances.
220. Pramlintide?
a. Insulin mimetic.
b. ↑’s glucagon
c. Used for DM II.
221. AE of pramlintide?
a. Hypoglycemia
b. Nausea
c. Diarrhoea
222. Only GLP-1 analogue (glucagon-like peptide)?
a. Exenatide
223. MOA of Exenatide (a GLP-1 analogue)?
a. ↑ Insulin and ↓ glucagon release.
b. Used in DM II.
224. AE of Exenatide (GLP-1 analogue)?
a. N/V
b. Pancreatitis
225. What 2 drugs inhibit the organification of iodide and coupling of thyroid hormone synthesis?
a. Methimazole and Propylthiouracil.
b. Propylthiouracil also ↓ Peripheral conversion of T4 to T3.
226. Clinical use of methimazole and propylthiouracil?
a. Hyperthyroidism.
227. AE of methimazole and propylthiouracil?
a. Skin rash
b. Agranulocytosis (rare)
c. Aplastic anaemia
d. Methimazole is a possible Teratogen.
e. Propylthiouracil can also cause hepatotoxicity.
228. MOA and clinical use of Levothyroxine and triiodothyronine?
a. MOA: thyroxine replacement
b. Clinical use: hypothyroidism, myxedema.
229. AE of levothyroxine and triiodothyronine?
a. Tachycardia
b. Heart intolerance
c. Tremors
d. Arrhythmias
230. 2 uses of GH?
a. GH deficiency
b. Turner syndrome