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70 Cards in this Set

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A comparison of acepromazine-buprenorphine and medetomidine-buprenorphine for preanesthetic medication of dogs
Results suggested that either acepromazine or medetomidine could be used in combination with buprenorphine for premedication of dogs anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane for routine surgical and diagnostic procedures. Arterial blood pressure was better maintained with the medetomidine-buprenorphine combinations, but tissue perfusion was not investigated.
A multicenter study of the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis
Results suggested that in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis receiving carprofen because of signs of pain, feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids may allow for a reduction in carprofen dosage.
A protocol for managing urethral obstruction in male cats without urethral catheterization
Results suggested that in male cats, a combination of pharmacological treatment, decompressive cystocentesis, and a low-stress environment may allow for resolution of UO without the need for urethral catheterization. This low-cost protocol could serve as an alternative to euthanasia when financial constraints prevent more extensive treatment.
Agreement between directly measured blood pressure and pressures obtained with three veterinary-specific oscillometric units in cats
Results suggested that none of the 3 veterinary- specific oscillometric blood pressure units could be recommended for indirect measurement of blood pressure in cats.
Ambulatory electrocardiographic evaluation of clinically normal adult Boxers
Clinically normal adult Boxers generally had < 91 VPCs/24 h and an arrhythmia grade < 2. Boxers with > 91 VPCs/24 h were uncommon and may have represented dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or other disease processes that could have resulted in the development of ventricular arrhythmias.
Assessment of criteria used by veterinary practitioners to diagnose hypothyroidism in sighthounds and investigation of serum thyroid hormone concentrations in healthy Salukis
Diagnosis of hypothyroidism by practitioners was most often made without adequate supportive laboratory evidence.Thyroid hormone values in healthy Salukis differed markedly from standard reference limits for some, but not all, thyroid hormone indices. Breed-specific reference limits should be used when interpreting thyroid hormone profiles of sighthounds.
Assessment of oxygen transport and utilization in dogs with naturally occurring sepsis
Compared with values in healthy dogs, only Do2I was significantly lower in dogs with sepsis. Values of CI and Do2 were significantly higher in dogs with sepsis than in dogs with nSIRS, suggesting differing degrees of myocardial dysfunction between these groups.
Association between naturally occurring chronic kidney disease and feline immunodeficiency virus infection status in cats
Among cats < 11 years of age, those with CKD were significantly more likely to have positive test results for serum antibodies against FIV gp40 than were cats without CKD. It cannot be definitively established from results of this study whether infection with FIV preceded the development of CKD, and the role, if any, of FIV in the establishment or progression of CKD remains to be determined.
Association between outcome and changes in plasma lactate concentration during presurgical treatment in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus: 64 cases (2002-2008)
By use of optimal cutoff values within HIL dogs, survival rates for dogs with final lactate concentration > 6.4 mmol/L (23%), absolute change in lactate concentration ≤ 4 mmol/L (10%), or percentage change in lactate concentration ≤ 42.5% (15%) were significantly lower than survival rates for dogs with a final lactate concentration ≤ 6.4 mmol/L (91%), absolute change in lactate concentration > 4 mmol/L (86%), or percentage change in lactate concentration > 42.5% (100%).
Association between outcome and organ system dysfunction in dogs with sepsis: 114 cases (2003-2007)
Results indicated that MODS, defined as dysfunction of at least 2 organ systems, can be identified in dogs with sepsis and that organ system dysfunction increased the odds of death.
Association of intestinal disorders in cats with findings of abdominal radiography
Normalizing ratios of maximum-SID:VEL2 and maximum-CD:VEL2 obtained from measurements on lateral radiographic views of the abdomen in cats were related to diagnosis category.
Barium toxicosis in a dog
To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.
Biological behavior of oral and perioral mast cell tumors in dogs: 44 cases (1996-2006)
Results suggested that in dogs with MCTs arising from the oral mucosa, oral mucocutaneous junction, or perioral region of the muzzle, the presence of regional lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis was a negative prognostic factor. However, prolonged survival times could be achieved with treatment. In addition, CCR7 expression in the primary tumor was not significantly associated with the presence of regional lymph node metastasis or survival time.
Case-control study to evaluate risk factors for the development of sepsis (neutropenia and fever) in dogs receiving chemotherapy
Dogs that weighed less were at increased risk for chemotherapy-induced sepsis. Tumor type and chemotherapeutic drug used were also important risk factors. These results may lead to the implementation of prophylactic measures, especially when doxorubicin or vincristine is used in the induction phase in small dogs with lymphoma.
Clinical relevance of serial determinations of lactate dehydrogenase activity used to predict recurrence in dogs with lymphoma
Determination of LDH activity may help with identifying episodes of recurrence in dogs with lymphoma. Anticipation of recurrence is an appropriate reason to begin rescue treatment.
Clinical signs and neuropathologic abnormalities in working Australian Kelpies with globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease)
The demyelination, inflammatory responses, and axonal spheroids evident in the AWKs were consistent with the clinical signs of peripheral nerve, spinal cord, and cerebellar dysfunction. Because GLD is an autosomal recessive inherited disease, with considerable overlap in galactosylceramidase activity existing among heterozygotes and noncarriers, development of a molecular test is important for preventing the perpetuation of this disease in the Australian Kelpie breed.
Comparison of biochemical variables in plasma samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes
Samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of microsample blood collection tubes that contained lithium heparin provided clinically equivalent biochemical results, compared with results for samples obtained by use of standard blood collection tubes, and minimized the total sample volume collected for diagnostic testing.
Comparison of complete blood counts in samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes
Samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of microsample blood collection tubes provided clinically equivalent CBC results, compared with results for samples obtained by use of standard blood collection tubes, and minimized the total sample volume collected for diagnostic testing.
Comparison of plasma cardiac troponin I concentrations among dogs with cardiac hemangiosarcoma, noncardiac hemangiosarcoma, other neoplasms, and pericardial effusion of nonhemangiosarcoma origin
The median plasma cTnI concentration was higher in dogs with cardiac hemangiosarcoma, compared with the median concentration in dogs with hemangiosarcoma at other sites, dogs with other neoplasms, and dogs with pericardial effusion not caused by hemangiosarcoma. The plasma cTnI concentration may be used to identify cardiac involvement in dogs with hemangiosarcoma and to identify cardiac hemangiosarcoma in dogs with pericardial effusion.
Comparison of survival after surgical or medical treatment in dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt
Both medical and surgical treatment can be used to achieve long-term survival of dogs with CPSS, although results of statistical analysis supported the widely held belief that surgery is preferable to medical treatment. However, the study population consisted of dogs at referral clinics, which suggested that efficacy of medical treatment may have been underestimated. Although surgical intervention was associated with a better chance of long-term survival, medical management provided an acceptable first-line option. Age at examination did not affect survival, which implied that early surgical intervention was not essential. Dogs with CPSS that do not achieve acceptable resolution with medical treatment can subsequently be treated surgically.
Comparison of urine dipstick, sulfosalicylic acid, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and species-specific ELISA methods for detection of albumin in urine samples of cats and dogs
Caution should be used when interpreting a positive test result of a dipstick or SSA test for canine or feline albuminuria.
Comparison of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio in urine samples collected by cystocentesis versus free catch in dogs
The UPC ratio in dogs was minimally affected in urine samples collected by free catch, thus allowing correct grading of proteinuria with this method. The high reliability of the UPC ratio in free-catch urine samples coupled with the ease of collection should increase the use of this value for assessment of proteinuria.
Complications associated with use of subcutaneous vascular access ports in cats and dogs undergoing fractionated radiotherapy: 172 cases (1996-2007)
Factors associated with the development of complications included sex, lack of propofol administration, and vein in which an SVAP catheter was inserted. The use of an SVAP may be a useful alternative to repeated catheterizations in cats and dogs.
Computed tomographic features of oral squamous cell carcinoma in cats: 18 cases (2002-2008)
Common CT features of oral SCC in cats included sublingual and maxillary locations, marked heterogeneous contrast enhancement, and osteolysis. Computed tomography may be used to determine mass extension and lymph node enlargement, but results did not correlate with survival time.
Cystoscopic diagnosis and treatment of ectopic ureters in female dogs: 16 cases (2005-2008)
Results suggested that cystoscopic-guided transection may be an acceptable alternative to traditional surgical correction of ectopic ureter in dogs. Most complications associated with the cystoscopic procedure were minor and easily managed.
Detection of antibodies against Leptospira serovars via microscopic agglutination tests in dogs in the United States, 2000-2007
Leptospirosis can affect dogs of small and large breeds and various ages. Although an increase in proportions of positive MAT results was evident in the fall, monthly and annual variations suggested potential exposure in all months. Because of the limitations of MAT results and the limited number of serovars used in the test, bacterial culture should be used to identify infective Leptospira serovars.
Developmental uterine anomalies in cats and dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy
Urogenital anomalies were twice as common in cats as in dogs. Identification of uterine developmental anomalies in dogs and cats should trigger evaluation of both kidneys and both ovaries because ipsilateral renal agenesis is common, but both ovaries are likely to be present and should be removed during ovariohysterectomy.
Effect of a synthetic appeasing pheromone on behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs
sDAP appeared to affect behavioral and neuroendocrine perioperative stress responses by modification of lactotropic axis activity. Use of sDAP in a clinical setting may improve the recovery and welfare of dogs undergoing surgery.
Effects of acepromazine, hydromorphone, or an acepromazine-hydromorphone combination on the degree of sedation in clinically normal dogs
Administration of acepromazine or acepromazine- hydromorphone caused sedation in clinically normal dogs, whereas administration of hydromorphone alone did not. The NRS was a less-reliable measure of sedation.
Effects of general anesthesia on plasma colloid oncotic pressure in dogs
Results suggested that COP in healthy dogs may decrease by 5 mm Hg on average after general anesthesia and that this decrease may not be reliably predicted by the volume of fluids administered IV during anesthesia or by the concurrent measured decrease in TS concentration.
Effects of glucosamine-chondroitin sulfate supplementation on serum fructosamine concentration in healthy dogs
Results suggest that in healthy dogs, short-term (ie, 21 days) oral Glu-CS administration does not affect glycemic control or cause diabetes mellitus.
Efficacy of leflunomide for treatment of immune-mediated polyarthritis in dogs: 14 cases (2006-2008)
Oral administration of leflunomide was a safe and effective alternative to oral administration of corticosteroids for treatment of IMPA in dogs. On the basis of findings in this study, a starting dosage for leflunomide of 3 to 4 mg/kg (1.4 to 1.8 mg/lb) PO once daily for at least 6 weeks before making dose adjustments is recommended. Dose adjustments should be based on cytologic evaluation of synovial fluid and clinical signs of IMPA. Hematologic variables, serum biochemical analysis results, and clinical signs of IMPA should be monitored for evidence of adverse effects to treatment with leflunomide.
Electrical cardioversion of sustained ventricular tachycardia in three Boxers
Results and follow-up monitoring suggested electrical cardioversion of sustained ventricular tachycardia may be a safe and effective treatment in Boxers that are unresponsive to medical treatment.
Evaluation of a postexposure rabies prophylaxis protocol for domestic animals in Texas: 2000-2009
The Texas Post-exposure Prophylaxis protocol was used during the 10- year period. Results indicated that an effective PEP protocol for unvaccinated domestic animals exposed to rabies was immediate vaccination against rabies, a strict isolation period of 90 days, and administration of booster vaccinations during the third and eighth weeks of the isolation period.
Evaluation of calorie density and feeding directions for commercially available diets designed for weight loss in dogs and cats
Wide variation existed in recommended calorie intake, kilocalories, and cost for diets marketed for weight loss in pets. This variability could contribute to challenges of achieving successful weight loss in pets.
Evaluation of open versus closed urine collection systems and development of nosocomial bacteriuria in dogs
Results suggested that for dogs requiring short-term indwelling urinary catheterization, the type of urine collection system (open vs closed) was not associated with likelihood of developing nosocomial bacteriuria. Use of a strict protocol for urinary catheter placement and maintenance was likely key in the low incidence of nosocomial bacteriuria in the present study.
Evaluation of outcomes in dogs treated for pyothorax: 46 cases (1983-2001)
In the dogs with pyothorax in this study, favorable treatment effects were achieved with surgery (for short-term survival) and pleural lavage and heparin treatment (for short- and long-term survival). Findings failed to support the hypothesis that invasive (surgical) versus noninvasive treatment of pyothorax in dogs leads to a better long-term outcome.
Evaluation of short- and long-term complications after endoscopically assisted gastropexy in dogs
Endoscopically assisted gastropexy can be a simple, fast, safe, and reliable method for performing prophylactic gastropexy in dogs. At 1 and 6 months after gastropexy, adequate placement and adhesion of the gastropexy site to the body wall was confirmed. Such a procedure could maximize the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, such as decreases in morbidity rate and anesthetic time. This technique appeared to be suitable as an alternative to laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy.
Evaluation of the association between plasma concentration of N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide and outcome in cats with cardiomyopathy
Plasma NT-proANP concentration may have potential as a testing marker for distinguishing healthy cats from cats with CM. It may also be useful for distinguishing CM cats with CHF from those without CHF. The value of NT- proANP concentration as a predictor of survival duration was not supported in this study and requires further evaluation.
Evaluation of the diagnostic value of an implantable loop recorder in dogs with unexplained syncope
Data gained after manual activation of an ILR provided valuable diagnostic and prognostic information in almost all dogs with unexplained syncopal episodes by confirming or disproving an association between syncope and arrhythmias. However, detection of disturbances in cardiac rhythm after automatic activation did not appear to improve the diagnostic value for an ILR implanted in dogs.
Evaluation of the effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis
At least in the short term, dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids resulted in an improvement in weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis.
Evaluation of the use of baseline cortisol concentration as a monitoring tool for dogs receiving trilostane as a treatment for hyperadrenocorticism
Evaluation of a baseline cortisol concentration collected 4 to 6 hours after trilostane administration in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism provided clinically useful information about control of adrenal gland function. Many dogs receiving trilostane may be adequately monitored without the expense and inconvenience of an ACTH stimulation test.
Evaluation of topical application of 10% imidacloprid-1% moxidectin to prevent Bartonella henselae transmission from cat fleas
In this setting, monthly topical administration of 10% imidacloprid–1% moxidectin reduced flea infestation, compared with infestation in untreated cats, and thus prevented flea transmission of B henselae to treated cats. Regular monthly use of this flea control product in cats may lessen the likelihood of humans acquiring B henselae infection.
Evaluation of treatment with a combination of azathioprine and prednisone in dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of undetermined etiology: 40 cases (2000-2007)
Azathioprine appeared to be a safe and potentially effective adjunct to prednisone for treatment of dogs with MUE. Prospective, double-blinded, controlled studies with histologic confirmation are warranted to substantiate these findings.
Evaluation of trends in urolith composition and characteristics of dogs with urolithiasis: 25,499 cases (1985-2006)
An increase in the proportion of CaOx uroliths submitted over time was detected. Reasons for long-term changes in this trend were likely multifactorial and could have included alterations in diet formulations and water consumption and possibly the fact that people favor ownership of breeds more prone to developing CaOx-containing uroliths. The decrease in metabolic uroliths could have been related to better breeding practices and increased awareness of results of genetic studies
Frequency of incomplete urolith removal, complications, and diagnostic imaging following cystotomy for removal of uroliths from the lower urinary tract in dogs: 128 cases (1994-2006)
Cystotomy was a safe and effective surgical procedure for removal of lower urinary tract uroliths in most dogs. Failure to remove all uroliths occurred in a substantial percentage of patients.
Hyperphosphatasemia and concurrent adrenal gland dysfunction in apparently healthy Scottish Terriers
Hyperphosphatasemia in apparently healthy Scottish Terriers was most likely attributable to hyperadrenocorticism on the basis of exaggerated serum biochemical responses to ACTH administration and histologic hepatic changes, but none of the dogs had clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism.
Infusion of a lipid emulsion to treat lidocaine intoxication in a cat
IV administration of a lipid emulsion was used in the treatment of lidocaine intoxication in a cat. Rapid infusion of a lipid emulsion may be a therapeutic option for veterinary patients with toxicosis attributable to local anesthetics or other lipid-soluble drugs.
Laparoscopy for percutaneous tube cystostomy in dogs
In this study, a laparoscopic percutaneous tube cystostomy was accomplished in healthy dogs by use of a 3-portal technique and appeared to be an effective and safe procedure.
Leishmaniasis in a dog native to Colorado
Although vertical disease transmission was suspected, it is possible that L infantum is now endemic in Colorado. Leishmaniasis should be considered in dogs with scaly dermatoses.
Magnetic resonance imaging features and clinical signs associated with presumptive and confirmed progressive myelomalacia in dogs: 12 cases (1997-2008)
A hyperintense region of the spinal cord > 6 times the length of L2 on T2-weighted imaging might be a characteristic MRI finding of PM. In some dogs, such MRI findings were observed before PM was clinically diagnosed. Progressive myelomalacia may thus be diagnosable at the early stage through MRI and CSF examination before signs of PM develop.
Management of mastitis and abscessation of mammary glands secondary to fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in a primiparturient cat
Management of abscessed mammary glands through surgical drainage and drain placement is an option for treatment of cats with complications of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. In the cat of this report, the treatment approach resulted in rapid resolution of mastitis, was less invasive than mastectomy, and avoided the potential complications of treatment with a progesterone-receptor antagonist.
Methylphenidate toxicosis in dogs: 128 cases (2001-2008)
Ingestion of even small amounts of MPH (Ritalin) can cause severe clinical signs in dogs. Monitoring and supportive care are recommended regardless of dose.
Mycophenolate mofetil treatment in dogs with serologically diagnosed acquired myasthenia gravis: 27 cases (1999-2008)
The results did not support routine use of MMF for the treatment of dogs with acquired MG. No significant differences were detected between treatment groups for remission rate, time to remission, or survival time. Megaesophagus, pneumonia, and low serum thyroid hormone concentration had no significant effect on time to remission or survival time for either treatment group.
Outcome of minimally invasive surgical treatment of heartworm caval syndrome in dogs: 42 cases (1999-2007)
Results of the study reported here suggest that dogs with caval syndrome that undergo successful transvenous heartworm extraction and survive to discharge have a good long-term prognosis.
Ovarian remnant syndrome in dogs and cats: 21 cases (2000-2007)
Ovarian remnants were found in typical locations for ovaries and were not considered ectopic tissue; thus, surgical error during OHE was suspected as the cause of ORS. Anatomic differences may account for differences between species, and clinical signs may not be recognized until years after OHE. Surgical removal of residual ovarian tissue resulted in resolution of clinical signs.
Panniculitis attributable to Mycobacterium goodii in an immunocompetent dog in Georgia
M goodii is an environmental rapidly growing mycobacterium and is a zoonotic pathogen. Infections have not been previously reported in domestic animals in North America, although there are rare reports of infection in humans associated with surgery, especially surgical implants. Domestic animals are a potential sentinel for this non- tuberculous mycobacterial infection in humans, although lack of speciation in infections of domestic animals likely underestimates the potential public health importance of this pathogenic organism. Current microbiological molecular methods allow for a rapid and inexpensive diagnosis.
Pathology in practice. Granuloma in a dog
Focal granuloma with intralesional refractive foreign material (gauze sponge fibers), consistent with gossypiboma.
Prevalence of protective antibody titers for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in dogs entering a Florida animal shelter
Most dogs had insufficient antibody titers for CDV, CPV, or both at the time of admission to the animal shelter. Findings support current guidelines recommending vaccination of all dogs immediately upon admission to shelters, regardless of source or physical condition.
Repeated rhinoscopic and serologic assessment of the effectiveness of intranasally administered clotrimazole for the treatment of nasal aspergillosis in dogs
Clinical signs were not predictive of disease state, and follow-up rhinoscopy is recommended to assess response to treatment. The success rate of intranasally administered clotrimazole was similar to rates in previous reports; however, the number of dogs with recurrent disease was relatively high. Monitoring of the results of serologic testing is not recommended for use in determining response to treatment.
Resolution of persistent pneumothorax by use of blood pleurodesis in a dog after surgical correction of a diaphragmatic hernia
Blood pleurodesis was used for resolution of pneumothorax in a dog after correction of a diaphragmatic hernia. Blood pleurodesis may provide a simple, safe, and inexpensive medical treatment for resolution of persistent (duration > 5 days) pneumothorax when surgery is not an option.
Response rate after administration of a single dose of doxorubicin in dogs with B-cell or T-cell lymphoma: 41 cases (2006-2008)
Standard-of-care chemotherapy protocols for the treatment of dogs with lymphoma include doxorubicin. Many dogs with T-cell lymphoma did not respond to doxorubicin; therefore, multiagent protocols containing doxorubicin may not be optimal. Alternative protocols should be considered for dogs with T-cell lymphoma that do not respond to doxorubicin.
Serologic prevalence of antibodies against canine influenza virus (H3N8) in dogs in a metropolitan animal shelter
Analysis of the results suggested that more dogs were exposed to CIV in the shelter than were exposed in the urban environment. This has serious implications for design and management of animal shelters.
Serum 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations during the reproductive cycle in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism
Serum 17OHP concentrations in healthy bitches increased during estrus, diestrus, and pregnancy and at those times were higher than in spayed bitches with hyperadrenocorticism.
Spontaneous hemoperitoneum in cats: 65 cases (1994-2006)
Spontaneous hemoperitoneum in cats often results in debilitating clinical consequences. In contrast to dogs with hemoperitoneum, the cause of hemoperitoneum in cats is approximately evenly distributed between neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases. Although only a few cats were treated in this study, the prognosis appears poor.
Thoracoscopic subtotal pericardiectomy and right atrial mass resection in a dog
Findings suggested that thoracoscopic right atrial mass removal combined with adjunct doxorubicin treatment may be a viable alternative to thoracotomy in dogs with right atrial masses.
Use of a combination of prednisolone and rosuvastatin for treatment of a pyogranuloma in a dog
A low dose of prednisolone was not effective against the pyogranuloma. However, administration of a low dose of prednisolone in combination with rosuvastatin caused decreases in CRP concentration and size of the pyogranuloma. Thus, statins may act as immunosuppressants.
Use of a commercially available relaxin test for detection of pregnancy in cats
Pregnancy was detected by use of the relaxin test kit as early as gestational day 20; sensitivity of the test was 100% on and after gestational day 29. False-positive results were detected in 3 queens, 2 of which had large (approx 2 X 3-cm) ovarian cysts, resulting in a specificity of 95.9%.
Use of a unique method for removal of a foreign body from the trachea of a cat
A fluoroscopic technique was used as a minimally invasive alternative to endoscopy or open-chest surgery for removal of a foreign body from the trachea of a cat. Use of this technique allowed uninterrupted ventilation of the cat throughout the procedure.
Use of calcium folinate in the management of accidental methotrexate ingestion in two dogs
IV administration of calcium folinate appeared to prevent the pathological sequelae of methotrexate intoxication without adverse effects. Administration of calcium folinate is recommended for the treatment of dogs with suspected or confirmed methotrexate overdose.