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92 Cards in this Set

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Accuracy of the withdrawal reflex for localization of the site of cervical disk herniation in dogs: 35 cases (2004-2007)
Results of the present study suggested that neurologic examination is frequently inaccurate as a method of preoperative neuroanatomic localization of cervical disk herniation in dogs and error is most likely to occur in dogs with lesions from C2 to C4.
Acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus
Results suggested that ketosis in diabetic dogs was related to the glucagon-insulin ratio with only low concentrations of insulin required to prevent ketosis. Acidosis in ketotic dogs was attributable largely to high serum ketone concentrations.
Acquired pulmonary artery stenosis in four dogs
Acquired PAS in dogs may manifest as a clinically silent heart murmur, syncope, or right-sided heart failure. The diagnosis is made on the basis of imaging findings, particularly results of 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment may include surgical, interventional, or medical modalities and is targeted at resolving the inciting cause.
Actinomycin D as rescue therapy in dogs with relapsed or resistant lymphoma: 49 cases (1999-2006)
Results suggested that administration of actinomycin D as a single agent was effective for rescue chemotherapy of dogs with relapsed or resistant lymphoma and that treatment was well tolerated, although mild thrombocytopenia developed commonly.

Concurrent prednisone administration, a shorter duration of first remission, and an increased number of previous chemotherapy agents were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of responding to actinomycin D treatment.

Concurrent prednisone administration and an increased number of previous chemotherapy agents were significantly associated with a shorter disease-free interval.
Acute intrinsic renal failure in cats: 32 cases (1997-2004)
Causes of ARF included nephrotoxins (n = 18 cats), ischemia (4), and other causes (10).

For each unit (mEq/L) increase in initial potassium concentration, there was a 57% decrease in chance of survival.

Low serum albumin or bicarbonate concentration at initial diagnosis was a negative prognostic indicator for survival.

Initial concentrations of BUN, serum creatinine, and other variables were not prognostic.

Seventeen (53%) cats survived, of which 8 cats had resolution of azotemia and 9 cats were discharged from the hospital with persistent azotemia.
Adverse effects and outcome associated with dexamethasone administration in dogs with acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation: 161 cases (2000-2006)
Results indicated that treatment with dexamethasone before surgery is associated with more adverse effects, compared with treatment with glucocorticoids other than dexamethasone or no treatment with glucocorticoids.

In this study population, no difference in outcome was found among groups.

These findings suggest that the value of dexamethasone administration before surgery in dogs with thoracolumbar disk herniation should be reconsidered.
Analysis of auditory and neurologic effects associated with ventral bulla osteotomy for removal of inflammatory polyps or nasopharyngeal masses in cats
Results suggested that in cats, VBO for removal of inflammatory polyps or masses is unlikely to affect hearing as measured via air-conducted BAER. Most cats developed short-term Horner syndrome. Cats with deafness prior to surgery did not regain auditory function. Ventral bulla osteotomy to remove nasopharyngeal polyps or masses provided no functional advantage with regard to restoration of hearing, compared with other surgical techniques. Polyp recurrence and long-term adverse effects were uncommon.
Analysis of prognostic factors associated with injection-site sarcomas in cats: 57 cases (2001-2007)
The development of distant metastasis, which may occur later during the course of the disease, was identified as a prognostic factor for overall survival time in cats with Injection site sarcomas.

In addition, cats with histologic grade 3 ISSs should be considered for further interventional studies with chemotherapy to prevent the high rate of distant metastasis.
Arthropathy caused by a lead bullet in a dog
Removal of lead intra-articular foreign bodies may be indicated even if the material is not believed to mechanically interfere with joint motion.
Assessment of acute injuries, exposure to environmental toxins, and five-year health surveillance of New York Police Department working dogs following the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center terrorist attack
Results suggested that acute injuries and illnesses were common among NYPD working dogs deployed to the WTC disaster site, but that long- term health complications were minimal.
Assessment of necropsy findings in sled dogs that died during Iditarod Trail sled dog races: 23 cases (1994-2006)
Unexpected death is a rare event among conditioned sled dogs during competition in endurance races.

Potentially life-threatening conditions of dogs that are associated with periods of long-distance physical exertion include aspiration pneumonia, gastric mucosal lesions, and severe rhabdomyolysis.

Dogs that develop clinical signs suggestive of these conditions should be excluded from strenuous activities.

Epidemiologic investigations are required to clarify the risk for death associated with these lesions in dogs competing in endurance races.
Assessment of plasma cardiac troponin I concentration as a means to differentiate cardiac and noncardiac causes of dyspnea in cats
At plasma concentrations ≥ 0.2 ng/mL, cTnI had 100% sensitivity but only 58% specificity for identification of CHF as the cause of dyspnea.

At plasma concentrations ≥ 1.43 ng/mL, cTnI had 100% specificity and 58% sensitivity for identification of CHF as the cause of dyspnea.

On the basis of the derived diagnostic limits, CHF as the cause of dyspnea could be ruled in or ruled out without additional diagnostic testing in > 50% of the study cats. Measurement of plasma cTnI concentration may be clinically useful for differentiation of cardiac from noncardiac causes of dyspnea in cats.
Assessment of serum antibody titers against canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type II, and canine parvovirus in Alaskan sled dogs before and after a long-distance race
Postrace increases in serum anti-CDV and anti-CPV antibody titer might reflect exposure of dogs to these agents immediately before or during racing. Dogs had no clinical signs of CDV-, CAV-2-, or CPV-associated disease; therefore, the clinical importance of these titer changes is uncertain.
Association of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings with outcome in dogs suspected to have ischemic myelopathy: 50 cases (2000-2006)
Results suggested that severity of neurologic signs at the time of initial examination and extent of the lesions seen on magnetic resonance images were associated with outcome in dogs with ischemic myelopathy.
Association of magnetic resonance imaging findings and histologic diagnosis in dogs with nasal disease: 78 cases (2001-2004)
Results suggested that in dogs with nasal disease, the lack of a mass effect on MR images was significantly associated with inflammatory disease.

In dogs with a mass effect on MR images, vomer bone lysis, cribriform plate erosion, paranasal bone destruction, sphenoid sinus invasion by a mass, and nasopharyngeal invasion by a mass were significantly associated with a diagnosis of neoplasia.
Association of pruritus with anxiety or aggression in dogs
An association was not detected between pruritus and aggressive, anxious, or fearful behavior in dogs.
Associations between dietary factors and pancreatitis in dogs
On the basis of information extracted from the medical record, ingesting unusual food items increased the odds of pancreatitis.

On the basis of information gathered through the telephone questionnaire, ingesting unusual food items, ingesting table scraps the week before diagnosis or throughout life, and getting into the trash increased the odds of pancreatitis.

Multivariable modeling indicated that reporting exposure to ≥ 1 dietary factor during the telephone questionnaire, being overweight or neutered, previous surgery other than neutering, and the interaction between neuter status and previous surgery other than neutering (OR, 0.1) were associated with the odds of pancreatitis.
Breed distribution of the ABCB1-1Δ (multidrug sensitivity) polymorphism among dogs undergoing ABCB1 genotyping
The ABCB1-1∆ polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to many adverse drug reactions and with suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is present in many herding breeds of dog. Veterinarians should be familiar with the breeds that have the ABCB1-1∆ polymorphism to make appropriate pharmacologic choices for these patients.
Cardiac output and other hemodynamic variables in anesthetized dogs undergoing laparotomy because of abdominal neoplasia
Results suggested that in dogs undergoing laparotomy because of abdominal neoplasia, changes in arterial blood pressures were not necessarily indicative of qualitatively similar changes in cardiac index.
Clinical and clinicopathologic features of dogs that consumed foodborne hepatotoxic aflatoxins: 72 cases
In comparisons of clinicopathologic test results between survivor and nonsurvivor dogs, only granular cylindruria (7/21 dogs) consistently predicted death.

Best early markers of aflatoxicosis were low plasma activities of anticoagulant proteins (protein C, antithrombin) and hypocholesterolemia.

Despite aggressive treatment, many but not all severely affected dogs died. Serum liver enzyme activities and bilirubin concentration were unreliable early markers of aflatoxin hepatotoxicosis in dogs.

Hypocholesterolemia and decreased plasma protein C and antithrombin activities may function as exposure biomarkers.
Clinical outcome of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt attenuation in dogs aged five years and older: 17 cases (1992-2005)
Attenuation of EHPSS in ≥ 5-year-old dogs ameliorated signs of liver dysfunction in surviving dogs, although return of normal liver function occurred less frequently than expected.
Clinical utility of serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration for identifying cardiac disease in dogs and assessing disease severity
Serum NT-proBNP concentration was significantly higher in dogs with cardiac disease than in control dogs, and a serum NT-proBNP concentration > 445 pmol/L could be used to discriminate dogs with cardiac disease from control dogs with a sensitivity of 83.2% and specificity of 90.0%.

In dogs with cardiac disease, serum NT-proBNP concentration was correlated with heart rate, respiratory rate, echocardiographic heart size, and renal function.

Serum NT-proBNP concentration could be used to discriminate dogs with and without radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly and dogs with and without congestive heart failure.

Results suggested that serum NT-proBNP concentration may be a useful adjunct clinical test for diagnosing cardiac disease in dogs and assessing the severity of disease in dogs with cardiac disease.
Clinical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic findings in dogs with aspiration pneumonia: 88 Cases (2004-2006)
In dogs, aspiration pneumonia was often associated with abnormalities in pulmonary auscultation in the absence of objective changes in physical examination findings. However, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoxemia were frequently detected, and radiographic evidence of infiltrates in the right middle lung lobe was common.
Clinicopathologic, histologic, and toxicologic findings in 70 cats inadvertently exposed to pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid
In cats unintentionally fed pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid, the most consistent clinical and pathologic abnormalities were associated with the urinary tract, specifically tubular necrosis and crystalluria.
Comparison of anesthetic induction in cats by use of isoflurane in an anesthetic chamber with a conventional vapor or liquid injection technique
Anesthetic induction in cats by use of a liquid injection technique was more rapid and provided a better quality of induction, compared with results for cats induced by use of a conventional vapor technique.
Complications associated with the use of vascular access ports in dogs receiving external beam radiation therapy
Placement of VAPs provided ready access in dogs receiving radiation therapy. Most complications were minor and self-limiting; however, a low risk of serious complications existed. Use of fluoroscopy to assess position of the catheter tip is recommended to decrease the risk of malposition. Immediate removal of a VAP is recommended when clinical signs of infection develop. Removal of a VAP at the completion of radiation therapy should be performed unless the benefit of continued vascular access outweighs the risks.
Development of a clinical severity index for dogs with acute pancreatitis
Among AP-affected dogs, the clinical severity index may be useful for treatment comparisons and prediction of intensive management requirements.

Serum CRP concentration was best related to AP severity within a 2-day period after onset of clinical signs, but daily measurement may be more useful for monitoring progress.
Diagnosis and treatment of blastomycosis affecting the nose and nasopharynx of a dog
In dogs, nasal and nasopharyngeal blastomycosis can result in severe osteolysis of the nasal bone. Resolution of disease can be achieved with oral administration of itraconazole for a period of at least 5 months.
Effect of orally administered tramadol alone or with an intravenously administered opioid on minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in cats
Administration of tramadol, butorphanol, or hydromorphone reduced the MAC of sevoflurane in cats, compared with that in cats treated with saline solution.

The reductions detected were likely mediated by effects of the drugs on opioid receptors.

An additional reduction in MAC was not detected when tramadol was administered with butorphanol or hydromorphone.
Effects of anesthesia and surgery on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens
Neutering at or near the time of first vaccination with a modified-live virus vaccine did not impair antibody responses in kittens. Many kittens that were last vaccinated at 14 weeks of age had inadequate antibody titers at 17 weeks of age. Kittens may be vaccinated in the perioperative period when necessary, and the primary vaccination series should be extended through at least 16 weeks of age.
Effects of dog-appeasing pheromones on anxiety and fear in puppies during training and on long-term socialization
When compared with a placebo treatment, DAP was useful in reducing anxiety and fear in puppies during puppy classes and resulted in improved socialization.
Effects of training and strenuous exercise on hematologic values and peripheral blood leukocyte subsets in racing sled dogs
Results suggested that training and exercise in-duced changes in several hematologic values in racing sled dogs. Extracellular fluid volume expansion was the likely explanation for the training-induced decrease in PCV, and acute blood loss secondary to gastrointestinal tract bleeding was likely responsible for the decrease in PCV associated with acute exercise.
Efficacy and safety of cefovecin in treating bacterial folliculitis, abscesses, or infected wounds in dogs
A single cefovecin injection (8 mg/kg) administered SC, which could be repeated once after 14 days, was safe and effective against naturally occurring skin infections in dogs and as effective as cefadroxil administered PO twice daily for 14 or 28 days.
Efficacy of a continuous, multiagent chemotherapeutic protocol versus a short-term single-agent protocol in dogs with lymphoma
In this population of dogs, we were not able to identify any significant difference in remission or survival times between dogs with lymphoma treated with a continuous, multiagent chemotherapeutic protocol and dogs treated with a short-term single-agent protocol involving doxorubicin.
Esophageal foreign body obstruction caused by a dental chew treat in 31 dogs (2000-2006)
Esophageal obstructions with a dental chew treat were difficult to remove orally via endoscopy, resulted in moderate or severe esophageal damage, frequently were associated with stricture formation, and were associated with a high mortality rate.
Etiologic classification of seizures, signalment, clinical signs, and outcome in cats with seizure disorders: 91 Cases (2000-2004)
Seizure etiology was symptomatic or reactive in most cats. Underlying disease was not associated with seizure type. Cats with idiopathic seizures lived longer than did cats with reactive or symptomatic seizures but were also younger.
Etiology and clinical outcome in dogs with aspiration pneumonia: 88 Cases (2004-2006)
Concurrent Esophageal disease (n = 35), vomiting (34), neurologic disorders (24), laryngeal disease (16), and postanesthetic aspiration (12) were identified most commonly. Among these study dogs, aspiration pneumonia was associated with a high survival rate. The presence of more than 1 underlying disease associated with aspiration pneumonia did not adversely impact survival rate. Interestingly, radiographic severity of disease and duration of hospitalization were not associated with overall survival rate.
Evaluation of a point-of-care hematology analyzer for use in dogs and cats receiving chemotherapeutic treatment
The point-of-care analyzer was reliable for monitoring CBCs of dogs and cats receiving chemotherapy. It had good to excellent correlation for WBC and neutrophil counts and Hct and accurately detected leukopenia, neutropenia, and anemia.

Sensitivity of the analyzer for detecting thrombocytopenia was lower but acceptable.
Evaluation of associations between lifetime exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products and bladder cancer in dogs
Although humans and their dogs live in the same household, the activity patterns of dogs may lead to lower exposures to household tap water. Thus, although exposure to disinfection by-products in tap water may be a risk factor for human bladder cancer, this may not be true for canine bladder cancer at the concentrations at which dogs are exposed.
Evaluation of circulating amino terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration in dogs with respiratory distress attributable to congestive heart failure or primary pulmonary disease
Serum or plasma NT-proBNP concentration assessment may be useful for discrimination of congestive heart failure from primary pulmonary disease in dogs with respiratory distress or cough.
Evaluation of freshwater submersion in small animals: 28 cases (1996-2006)
Results suggest that submersion is an uncommon reason for veterinary evaluation but is associated with a good prognosis in dogs in the absence of respiratory tract failure.
Evaluation of inciting causes, alternative targets, and risk factors associated with redirected aggression in cats
Fear was likely the most common motivation for redirected aggression in the cats of this report. To reduce the risk of redirected aggression, veterinarians should encourage owners to socialize kittens and habituate them to novel objects and sounds.
Evaluation of neoadjuvant prednisone administration and surgical excision in treatment of cutaneous mast cell tumors in dogs
Treatment with neoadjuvant prednisone appears to be useful for inducing reduction of MCTs and may facilitate resection when adequate surgical margins cannot be confidently attained because of mass location or size or both. No significant differences were noted between groups receiving 1 mg/kg or 2.2 mg/kg prednisone.
Evaluation of outcome associated with subcutaneous and intramuscular hemangiosarcoma treated with adjuvant doxorubicin in dogs: 21 cases (2001-2006)
Dogs with subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma had a more favorable outcome, compared with dogs with intramuscular hemangiosarcoma, when treated with adequate local control and adjuvant doxorubicin.
Evaluation of prognostic factors in the surgical treatment of adrenal gland tumors in dogs: 41 cases (1999-2005)
A high mortality rate was associated with adrenalectomy in dogs; however, those that survived until discharge from a hospital had long survival times. Preoperative factors associated with a shorter survival time were weakness or lethargy, thrombocytopenia, increased BUN concentration, increased PTT, increased AST activity, and hypokalemia. Studies are needed to evaluate how treatment for these factors may affect or change outcome after adrenalectomy. Dogs with adrenal masses that require concurrent nephrectomy and cause intraoperative hemorrhage have a guarded prognosis.
Evaluation of risk factors associated with suture-nidus cystoliths in dogs and cats: 176 cases (1999-2006)
Suture remnants in the bladder have an important role in recurrent cystolithiasis in dogs. Identification of risk factors is important for avoiding recurrence of iatrogenic cystoliths.
Evaluation of surgically placed gastrojejunostomy feeding tubes in critically ill dogs
Gastrojejunostomy tube placement affords flexibility in the postoperative nutritional regimen by allowing for postgastric feeding with simultaneous access to the stomach.
Evaluation of twice-daily, low-dose trilostane treatment administered orally in dogs with naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism
In dogs with NOH, administration of trilostane at low doses every 12 hours was effective, although 2 dogs became ill during treatment. Drug effects diminished within 8 to 9 hours. Because of potential adverse effects, lower doses should be evaluated.
Evaluation of use of human albumin in critically ill dogs: 73 Cases (2003-2006)
Administration of human albumin significantly increased serum albumin, and total protein concentrations and colloid osmotic pressure, especially in survivors. Because of the high mortality rate of the study population and other confounding factors, it was uncertain whether complications were associated with the underlying disease or with human albumin administration. Acute and delayed complications may have been under-recognized.
Failure to identify an association between serologic or molecular evidence of Bartonella infection and idiopathic rhinitis in dogs
The present study failed to confirm an association between idiopathic rhinitis and exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs. Findings do not rule out the possibility that Bartonella infection may cause nasal discharge in some dogs, but the failure to find any evidence of exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge suggested that Bartonella infection was not a common cause of the disease.
Goitrous hypothyroidism associated with treatment with trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole in a young dog
This is the first report of antimicrobial-induced goiter in a dog. Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates and interpretation of data from serum biochemical and thyroid function analyses were needed to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Practitioners should include goiter among the differential diagnoses for ventral neck swellings in young dogs receiving potentiated sulfonamide antimicrobials.
Histologic examination of hepatic biopsy samples as a prognostic indicator in dogs undergoing surgical correction of congenital portosystemic shunts: 64 cases (1997-2005)
Findings suggested that results of histologic examination of hepatic biopsy samples obtained at the time of surgery cannot be used to predict long-term outcome in dogs undergoing surgical correction of a PSS.
Late cardiac perforation by a passive-fixation permanent pacemaker lead in a dog
In dogs with permanent pacemakers and loss of ventricular capture, differential diagnoses should include cardiac perforation. If evidence of perforation of the pacemaker lead is found, replacement of the endocardial pacemaker lead with an epicardial pacemaker lead is warranted.
Levetiracetam as an adjunct to phenobarbital treatment in cats with suspected idiopathic epilepsy
Results suggested that levetiracetam is well tolerated in cats and may be useful as an adjunct to phenobarbital treatment in cats with idiopathic epilepsy
Lomustine for treatment of mast cell tumors in cats: 38 cases (1999-2005)
Results suggested that lomustine had activity against MCTs in cats and was well tolerated. Further, findings suggested that treatment with lomustine should be considered for cats with MCTs for which local treatment is not an option.
Microbial culture of blood samples and serologic testing for bartonellosis in cats with chronic rhinosinusitis
A role for Bartonella spp in the pathogenesis of CRS in cats was not supported by results of this study.
Multiple myeloma with central nervous system involvement in a cat
To our knowledge, this is the first report of myeloma in a cat that had electrophoretically detectable light chain proteinuria but lacked a detectable serum monoclonal gammopathy.
Nonsurgical resolution of gallbladder mucocele in two dogs
Review of the clinical course of 2 dogs in which there was nonsurgical resolution of gallbladder mucocele revealed that surgery is not necessary in all dogs with gallbladder mucocele. Hypothyroidism may have resulted in delayed gallbladder emptying, and its role in the pathogenesis of gallbladder mucocele merits investigation. Despite this information, until further prospective trials with a control group and standardized treatments and follow-up monitoring can be performed, the authors recommend surgical intervention for treatment of dogs with gallbladder mucocele.
Outcome of cats with low-grade lymphocytic lymphoma: 41 cases (1995-2005)
Most cats with lymphocytic lymphoma responded to treatment with prednisone and chlorambucil, and most factors evaluated were not associated with outcome.
Outcome of medical and surgical treatment in dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy: 104 Cases (1988-2004)
In the present study, neither outcome nor survival time was significantly different between dogs with CSM treated medically and dogs treated surgically, suggesting that medical treatment is a viable and valuable option for management of dogs with CSM.
Percutaneous endovascular retrieval of an intravascular foreign body in five dogs, a goat, and a horse
Intravascular foreign bodies that result from catheters or devices used during minimally invasive techniques are rare but may cause substantial morbidity. Percutaneous endovascular retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies was easily and safely performed in the 7 animals reported here. Use of percutaneous endovascular retrieval tech- niques should be considered for treatment of animals with intravascular foreign bodies because morbidity can be substantially decreased; however, proper selection of patients for the procedure is necessary.
Persistent vaginal hemorrhage caused by vaginal vascular ectasia in a dog
Vascular ectasia may be a cause of chronic vaginal hemorrhage and life-threatening anemia in dogs. In the dog of this report, the diagnosis was made on the basis of direct observation during exploratory episiotomy and histopathologic findings. To manage the condition, total vaginectomy was performed; however, despite radical surgery, bleeding recurred.
Pituitary-adrenal function in dogs with acute critical illness
Biochemical abnormalities of the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis indicative of adrenal gland or pituitary gland insufficiency were common in critically ill dogs, whereas exaggerated responses to ACTH administration were uncommon. Acutely ill dogs with ∆-cortisol ≤ 83 nmol/L may be more likely to require vasopressors as part of the treatment plan.
Prevalence of hemangiosarcoma in anemic dogs with a splenic mass and hemoperitoneum requiring a transfusion: 71 cases (2003-2005)
In this clinical population of dogs, prevalence of hemangiosarcoma was higher than in other studies.

Dogs with hemangiosarcoma in this study had significantly lower TS concentrations and platelet counts at the time of admission, compared with values for dogs with other splenic masses.

No other markers were useful in differentiating dogs with hemangiosarcoma.

It is important to discuss the prevalence of and poor prognosis associated with hemangiosarcoma with owners when they are contemplating whether to pro- ceed with treatment.
Prevalences of various hemoplasma species among cats in the United States with possible hemoplasmosis
Overall prevalences of Mhm, Mhf, and Mtc infection were 23.2%, 4.8%, and 6.5%, respectively. Mixed infections were detected in 6.5% cats.

Cats infected with hemoplasmas were more likely to be male than were uninfected cats.

Infection with FeLV or FIV was significantly associated with infection with Mhf.

Compared with uninfected cats, cats infected with Mhf had higher reticulocyte counts, nucleated RBC counts, and mean corpuscular volume; cats infected with Mhm had higher mean corpuscular volume; and cats infected with Mtc had higher monocyte counts.
Proliferative sparganosis in a dog
Findings indicated that clinical signs associated with proliferative sparganosis in dogs may be rapidly progressive and that the condition may be refractory to antiparasitic treatment. Veterinarians should be aware of this zoonotic, water-borne agent.
Pyogranulomatous cystitis associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in a cat after renal transplantation
Toxoplasmosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for azotemia in feline renal transplant recipients regardless of the results of assays for T gondii antibodies in the serum of donors or recipients. This report illustrated the need for improved screening of donor and recipient cats and the importance of minimizing exposure to potential sources of T gondii after transplantation.
Radiographic findings in dogs with pulmonary blastomycosis: 125 cases (1989-2006)
Results suggested that a nonuniform distribution of pulmonary infiltrates was equally as likely as a diffuse nodular interstitial pattern in dogs with pulmonary blastomycosis. On the basis of half-time for resolution of pulmonary infiltrates, follow-up radiography should be performed no more often than every 4 to 6 weeks in clinically stable patients. Transient radiographic worsening that occurred during the initial weeks of treatment was not associated with a poorer prognosis.
Relationship between Doppler blood pressure and survival or response to treatment in critically ill cats: 83 cases (2003-2004)
Hypotensive cats had increased mortality rate with lower rectal temperatures and lower PCV, compared with normotensive critically ill cats. The implications of these findings with regard to treatment remain to be elucidated, but addressing these abnormalities may be appropriate.
Results of excision of thymoma in cats and dogs: 20 cases (1984-2005)
Results of this study indicated that most cats and dogs with thymomas did well after excision.

Excision should be considered an effective treatment option for dogs and cats with thymomas.

Percentage lymphocyte composition of the mass was the only factor that was significantly correlated with survival time; animals with a high percentage of lymphocytes lived longer.
Results of the confidential enquiry into perioperative small animal fatalities regarding risk factors for anesthetic-related death in dogs
An increase in physical status grade, urgency of the procedure, age, or intended duration of the procedure; a decrease in body weight; anesthesia for a major versus a minor procedure; and use of injectable agents for anesthetic induction and halothane for maintenance or use of inhalant anesthetics alone (compared with use of injectable agents for induction and isoflurane for maintenance) were associated with increased odds of anesthetic-related death.
Retinopathy associated with ivermectin toxicosis in two dogs
To our knowledge, this is the first report of resolution of retinal edema and electroretinographic changes associated with ivermectin toxicosis in dogs. In dogs that develop blindness suddenly, fundic examination, electroretinography, and assessment of serum ivermectin concentration are diagnostically useful, even if exposure to ivermectin is unknown.
Retrospective evaluation of the effects of diazepam in dogs with anxiety-related behavior problems
Adverse effects of diazepam in dogs were commonly reported and often led to drug discontinuation. Owner education and follow-up is recommended to avoid treatment failure when prescribing diazepam for anxiety-related behavior problems in dogs.
Self-expanding nitinol stents for the treatment of tracheal collapse in dogs: 12 cases (2001-2004)
Placement of an intraluminal stent with self-expanding nitinol stents was a successful palliative treatment for tracheal collapse in dogs that did not respond to medical management. Disease progression is inevitable, but substantial improvement in respiratory function may be achieved for a period of months to years.
Seroprevalences of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in cats with abscesses or bite wounds and rate of veterinarian compliance with current guidelines for retrovirus testing
A high proportion of cats with abscesses or bite wounds were seropositive for FeLV antigen or FIV antibody.

Compliance with recommendations to test cats for retrovirus infection status at acquisition or after treatment for injury was low.

The FeLV- FIV infection status of cats with potential fight wounds should be determined at time of treatment and again 60 days later.
Serum antibodies against human albumin in critically ill and healthy dogs
Results suggested that dogs developed a pronounced IgG response following exposure to HA and that some dogs with no history of HA administration were positive for anti-HA IgG.
Serum liver enzyme activities in healthy Miniature Schnauzers with and without hypertriglyceridemia
Results suggested that moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemia was associated with high serum liver enzyme activities in Miniature Schnauzers.
Serum triglyceride concentration in dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide
Results suggested that dogs treated long term with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide may develop hypertriglyceridemia. Fasting serum triglyceride concentration should be periodically monitored in dogs treated with phenobarbital because hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for pancreatitis.
Severe reaction to intravenous administration of an ionic iodinated contrast agent in two anesthetized dogs
Findings highlighted the potential risk for severe reactions associated with IV administration of ionic iodinated contrast agents in dogs. Both hypertensive and hypotensive responses were seen. Supportive care for systemic manifestations was effective in these 2 dogs, and extended hospitalization was not necessary.
Suspected albuterol toxicosis in a dog
Ingestion of albuterol can lead to profound physical and serum biochemical abnormalities (Hypokalemia most notably). Appropriate historical information should be obtained to identify possible sources and routes of exposure to intoxicants. Albuterol-induced hypokalemia can be successfully managed medically.
Thrombi in the trachea of a dog secondary to placement of a tracheotomy tube
Airway obstruction resulting from an intraluminal thrombus in the trachea should be considered as a secondary complication after tracheotomy tube placement.
Tumors affecting the spinal cord of cats: 85 cases (1980-2005)
Lymphosarcoma was the most common tumor and affected the spinal cord in 33 (38.8%) cats, followed by osteosarcoma in 14 (16.5%) cats. Cats with lymphosarcoma were typically younger at initial examination, had a shorter duration of clinical signs, and had lesions in more regions of the CNS than did cats with other types of tumors. In 22 of 26 (84.6%) cats with lymphosarcoma, the tumor was also found in extraneural sites. Data for spinal cord tumors in this population of cats were analyzed by logistic regression analysis, which effectively distinguished cats with lymphosarcoma from cats with other types of tumors.
Use of a balloon-expandable metallic stent for treatment of nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs and cats: Six cases (2005-2007)
Transnasal balloon-expandable metallic stent placement may represent a rapid, safe, noninvasive, and effective treatment in animals with nasopharyngeal stenosis. If the stenosis is extremely caudal in the nasopharynx, serial balloon dilatation might be considered prior to stent placement. A covered stent should be considered initially if the stenosis is completely closed.
Use of a nitinol gooseneck snare catheter for removal of adult Dirofilaria immitis in two cats
Findings suggested that use of a nitinol gooseneck snare catheter may be a safe and effective technique for removing adult D immitis from the right atrium and ventricle in cats and that successful removal of adult heartworms in infected cats may resolve clinical signs of right-sided congestive heart failure and chylothorax. In addition, findings in 1 cat suggested that removal of all adult heartworms may not be necessary for clinical signs to resolve.
Use of alternating administration of carboplatin and doxorubicin in dogs with microscopic metastases after amputation for appendicular osteosarcoma: 50 cases (1999-2006)
Alternating administration of carboplatin and doxorubicin resulted in DFI and survival time similar to those reported for single-agent protocols. Clients should be counseled regarding the likelihood of toxicoses. Relevance of sequence and timing of starting chemotherapy should be further evaluated.
Use of cystoscopic-guided laser ablation for treatment of intramural ureteral ectopia in male dogs: Four cases (2006-2007)
Ureteral ectopia can cause urinary incontinence in male dogs and is usually associated with other urinary tract abnormalities. Cystoscopic- guided laser ablation provided an effective and minimally invasive alternative to surgical management of intramural ureteral ectopia.
Use of ketoconazole to treat dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism: 48 cases (1994-2007)
Ketoconazole was a safe and effective option for treating dogs with PDH. Additional research is needed to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment with ketoconazole on adrenal glands.
Use of laser lithotripsy for fragmentation of uroliths in dogs: 73 Cases (2005-2006)
Transurethral cystoscope–guided laser lithotripsy was successful in female dogs and most male dogs for fragmentation of cystic and urethral uroliths. Short-term complications were most commonly related to urethral swelling and resolved with placement of an indwelling urinary catheter. There were no long-term complications.
Use of propofol for anesthesia in cats with primary hepatic lipidosis: 44 cases (1995-2004)
The use of propofol did not increase morbidity or fatalities in cats with primary hepatic lipidosis. Thus, propofol can be used in these cats for placement of a feeding tube.
Use of trazodone as an adjunctive agent in the treatment of canine anxiety disorders: 56 cases (1995-2007)
Although further controlled studies of dose range, efficacy, and safety are needed, trazodone may provide an additional therapeutic option for use in dogs that are unresponsive to conventional treatment.
Utility of diagnostic tests for and medical treatment of pulmonary blastomycosis in dogs: 125 cases (1989-2006)
Results suggested that the agar gel immunodiffusion test should not be used as the sole diagnostic test for pulmonary blastomycosis in dogs, that concurrent bacterial pneumonia was uncommon in dogs with pulmonary blastomycosis, and that the rate with which pulmonary infiltrates resolved did not vary significantly among antifungal treatments.
Method of Action of Levetriacetam
Technically the MOA is unknown. Levetiracetam binds to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A which is thought to impede nerve conduction across synapses.