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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
programs that contain instructions for the computer
software
equipment or devices
hardware
Four major operations in a computer
Input
Processing
Output
Storage
allows data to enter the computer
Input Devices (ie keyboard, mouse scanner)
works on the data;organizes; checks; manipulates data
Processing
hardware that performs processing tasks
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
provides data to the user
Output Device (ie screen, printer, speakers)
special language containing instructions for the computer
Programming Language (VB, Cobol)
the rules governing word usage and punctuation in the language
Syntax
a language that controls the computer's on/off circuitry
Machine Language
software that translates programming languages into machine languages
Compiler or Interpreter
a program must be free of Syntax errors in order to be
Executed or run
Examples: Main memory, Random Access Memory (RAM) These are located inside the computer system and it is Volative
Internal Storage
Persistent, relatively constant. Ex. Floppy drive, hard drive, thumb drive. Located outside the computer system
External Storage
Six Programming Phases
1. Understand the Problem
2. Plan the logic
3. Code the program
4. Use software to translate the program to machine language
5. Test the program
6. Deploy the program into production
Parts of Step 2-Planning the Logic
Flowcharts & Pseudocode
pictorial representation of the logic steps
Flowchart
English-like representation of the logic
Pseudocode
Syntax errors are identified by_
The Compiler/Interpreter
Data Hierarchy
Character (small)
-Field
--Record
---File
----Database (large)
Single symbol (letter, number or special symbol)
Character
group of characters forming a single data item
Field
a group of related fields
Record
a group of related records
File
collection of related files, called tables, that serve the information needs of an organization
Database
Input Symbol
Parallelogram
Processing Symbol
Rectangle
Output symbol
parallelogram
connects the steps; shows the sequence of statements; has arrows to show the direction
Flowlines
Show start/end points of a statement
Terminal (Start/Stop)-Lozenge Shaped
Back-point arrows show statements that will be _
Repeated
a memory location whose contents can vary; must be a single world (compounded if necessary)
Variable (aka Identifier)
a sequence of statements that repeats forever with no escape
Infinite Loop
testing a value
Decision
diamond shape with two flowlines, one for yes one for no
Diamond-Decision Structure
Signal to stop; does not represent real data
Sentinel Value (dummy value)
code stored in the file that marks the end of the data
End-of-File Marker
marks a logic transfer to another location in the flowchart
Connector Symbol
circle w/ number to identify matching transfer location
On-page Symbol
Square w/ a pointed bottom w/ page # and letter to identify matching transfer locaiton
Off-page Symbol
Assigns value to a variable; variable MUST appear on the left side
Assignment Statement
"=" in most programming languages
Assignment Operator
stored by numeric variables
Numeric data
stored by text, string, or character variables
Text data
values that do not change when the program is running
Constant
whole numbers only data type
Integer
fractional numeric values with decimal points
Floating-point
a basic unit of programming logic
Structure
3 basic types of structures
Sequence
Selection
Loop
a set of instruction, performed sequentially with no branching
Sequence Structure
asks a question then takes one of two possible courses of action based on the answer
Selection (decision) Structure
selection structure with only one alternative
Singe-alternative if
repeats a set of actions based on the answer to a question
Loop Structure
attaching structures end-to-end
Stacking
endif-ends if-then-else structure
endwhile- ends a loop structure
End-Structure Statement
placing one structure within another
Nesting
group of statements that execute as a single unit
Block
reads the first input data record
Priming Read
Structured Loop steps
1. First ask a question
2. take action based on the answer
3. return to ask the question again
additional structures
case
do-while
do-until
while loop with question at beginning
Pre-test Loop
do while and do until loops with question at the end
Post-test loop
unit of code that performs one small task (subroutine, procedure, function, or method)
Module
breaking a large program into modules
Modularization
Advantages of Modularization:
provides abstraction; allows multiple programmers to work simultaneously; allows code reuse; makes identifying structures easier
focusing on important properties while ignoring non-essential details
Abstraction
the ability to use modules in a variety of applications
Reusability
assurance that a module has been tested and proven to function correctly
Reliability
contains the mainline logic; accesses other modules or subroutines; must be one word followed by ()
Main Module
one that uses another module; rectangle with a bar across the top; logic transfers from caller to called back to caller
Calling Program (calling module)
extent to which the statements contribute to the same task
Functional Cohesion
declared within a module
Local variables
declared at the beginning of the program, and used in all modules
Global variables
flowchart symbol containing notes
Annotation Box
list of variables used in a program, with their size, type, and description
Data Dictionary
tells which routines (modules) call other routines
Hierarchy chart
blackened corner indicates
a module has been used more than once
program documentation contains
output design; input design; flowcharts; pseudocode; program code listing
user documentation contains
manuals; instructional materials; operating instructions