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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ligaments
-fibrous bands
-bone to bone
Bursa
-enclosed sac filled with synovial fluid
-Areas of potential friction (shoulder, patella)
Tendon
-Bone to muscle
-Strong, fibrous cord
-Vertebrae
-Spinous Processes of C7/T1
-Inferior angle of scapula
-Iliac crests
-Posterior superior iliac spine
-33
-base of neck
-T7/T8
-L4
-Sacrum
Nucleus pulposus
-disk center
-consistancy of toothpaste
Radiocarple joint
-wrist

-articulation of radius and carpal bones
Knee synovial membrane
-largest in the body
-forms sac at the superior border of patella: suprapatellar pouch
Knee connections
-Medial & Lateral mensici (cushion tibia and femur)
-Cruciate ligament (crisscross within knee)
-Collateral ligaments (connect at both sides, medial and lateral stability)
Bony promineces on side of ankle
Medical and lateral malleolus
Decreased height in aging
-After 40, loss of bone matrix
-Long bones do not shorten
-shortening of vertebral column
-40 in men, 43 in women, significant at 60
-Greater in 70s/80s due to osteoporotic collapse of vertebrae
Rheumatoid Arthritis
-Inflammation of synovial membrane, leads to fibrosis
-Symmetrical, bilateral
-heat, redness, swelling
-Pain in morning
-Mvmt decreases pain
-crepitation (roughened joints)
-Subcutaneous nodules
Osteoarthritis
-Noninflammatory
-Deterioration of articular cartilages
-Asymmetrical join involvement
-Nearly all older than 60 (more common than RA)
Subluxation
Two bones in a joint stay in contact but their alignment is off
Contracture
shortening of muscle leading to limited ROM
Ankylosis
Stiffness or fixation of joint
Articular disease
-inside joint capsule (arthritis)
-swelling/tenderness around whole joint, limits ROM in both active and passive
Extra-articular disease
-injury
-swelling and tenderness to one spot in joint
-Only certain ROM, active motion
Muscle testing grades
5: Full ROM against gravity, full resistance
4:Full ROM, some resistance
3: Full ROM (but not against resistance)
2: Full ROM in passive motion
1: Slight contraction
0: No contraction
Thenar eminence
rounded mound proximal to thumb
Phalen test
-Hands back to back while flexing wrists at 90 degrees for 60 seconds.
-Carpal tunnel produces numbness and burning
Tinel Sign
-Percussion on median nerve in the wrist
-Produces burning and tingling with carpal tunnel
Genu Varum
-bowlegs
-Normal for 1 year after begins walking
Genu valgum
-knock knees
-Normal b/w 2 & 3.5 years
Bulge Sign
-Confirms presence of small amount of fluid in suprapatellar pouch.
-Firmly stroke up on the medial aspect of the knee to displace fluid, tap the lateral aspect, watch for bulge from fluid wave on medial side.
Ballottement of the Patella
-For large amounts of fluid
-Compress the suprapatellar pouch to move fluid into knee joint, push the patella against the femur, if fluid present you hear a tap as the patella bumps onto the femoral condyles.
-No fluid: patella is already snug against femur.
McMurray Test
-History of trauma followed by locking, giving way or local pain
-Positive = hear or feel a click = torn meniscus in knee
-Flex knee and hip, rotate leg in and out, externally rotate the leg and put inward stress on knee, then slowly extend.
Lasegue Test (Straight Leg Raising)
If lifting affected leg reproduces sciatic pain, it confirms the presence of a herniated nucleus pulposus.
Ortolani maneuver
-Check infant hips for congential dislocation
-Every visit till infant is 1 years old
-Flex knees, abduct legs so lateral sides touch table.
-Positive sign if feel clunk
Allis test
-Infant hip dislocation
-Feet flat on table, flex knees, check knees at same elevation.
-Positive = one significantly lower
Tophi
-collections of sodium urate crystals due to chronic gout
-swelling and joint deformity
Gout
-Metalbolic disorder of disturbed purine metabolism
-elevated uric acid in serum
Spina bifida
-incomplete closure of vertebae results in neural tube defect
-Ranges from skin defect on spine to protrusion of the meningial sac
-Heberden nodes
-Hard, nontender nodules with osteoarthritis
-osteophytes of distal interphalangeal joints
-Bouchard nodules
-Hard, nontender nodules with osteoarthritis
-osteophytes of proximal interphalangeal joints
Protraction/Retraction
moving body part forward/backward and parallel to the ground
TMJ
Temporomandibular Joint
Interverterbral disks
-elastic fibrocartilage
Bones in the body
206
-midcarple joint
-metacarpophalangeal
-interphangeal
-between two parallel rows of carpal bones
-knuckles
-Proximal interphalangeal joint
The infant can lift the head while prone...
by 2 months
Pes planus
-flatfoot
-pronation, turning in, of medial side of foot
-common between 12 and 30 months at standing
Pigeon toes
-walk on lateral side of the foot, arch looks higher
-corrects by age 3
Osteoporosis risks
-smaller height and weight
-younger age of menopause
-lack physical activity
-lack estrogen
-Asian or white more likely
Dupuytren Contracture
-hyperplasia of the palmar fascia causes flexion of the digits
-first 4th, then 5th, then 3rd
-Men over 40
-bilateral
-painless, doesn't go away
-Swan Neck
RA
-Flexsion contracture o metacarporphalangeal joint, hyperextension of PIJ, flexion of distal interphalangeal joint
-Boutonniere Deformity
RA
-knuckle looks like it is being pushed through a buttonhole
-flexion of PIP, hyperextension of DIP
Ulnar deviation or drift
fingers drift to ulnar side
RA
Prepatellar bursitis
swelling on anterior knee between patella and skin
Hallux Valgus
-lateral or outward deviation of great toe
-inflamed bursa that forms at pressure point
Hammertoe
2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th toes
-hyperextention of metatarsophalangeal joint and flexion of proximal interphalengeal joint
Corns
thickening of soft tissue
Plantar Wart
pressure surfaces
Viral
HPV