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50 Cards in this Set

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Jomon
10,000-300 BC
Around 10,000 BC, nomadic hunters and food gatherers began to settle throughout Japan
This began a Paleolithic period, called the Jomon period where crude stone tools were made.
Crude pottery was made without a potter’s wheel (Jomon). Japanese had nothing (no writing system, no metallurgy).
First the Ainu-"proto Caucasians" came from the north before the Yayoi period (500BC-500AD
Yayoi
During the Yayoi period Mongolians from Korea came to Japan
Around the same time, Polynesian people, who were short and worshipped a Sun-goddess, Amaterasu, arrive from the south pacific. (The Japanese are shorter than the Chinese because of this).
Then people who brought wet rice to Japan arrive from southeast Asia (one of the most important elements of an Asian civilization).
Ainu
"proto Caucasians" came from the north before the Yayoi period
Shinto
the way of the Gods, Japanese religion
Nihon
Japanese for Land of the Rising Sun, Japanese name for Japan
Amaterasu
the sun goddess, supreme goddess in Shinto, gave birth to the Yamato clan
Kami
Gods of the Shinto, clans used certain gods as patrons.
Jimmu Tenno
was the first emperor of Japan and the first member of the Yamato clan, supposedly the grandson of Amaterasu
Hokkaido
northern island of Japan
Honshu
middle island of Japan
Shikoku
smallest island of Japan, south of Honshu.
Kyushu
southernmost island of Japan
Haniwa
large clay figures placed on top of tombs of emperors. Building the tombs was a way of controlling the people. The Hanwa were supposed to protect the king in the afterlife. Many of them show evidence of a proto-samurai
Shotuoku Taishi
Prince Taishi, wrote the 17 article constitution
17 Article constitution
said that Chinese culture was to be copied in every way: language, architecture, art, Confucian ethics, Buddhism (not interfering with Shinto), and government. Buddhist temples became centers of Chinese culture
Taika reforms (645)
After defeating the Soga, the Fujiwara (formerly named Nakatomi) created the Taika reform to solidify their new position as second in command under the emperor. Clans were forced to surrender land to the emperor for an exchange for an important government position. The Emp. Japan owned all the land, but the clan leaders were given power as governors over their previous landholdings.
Taiho (702)
the government’s attempt to establish a strong central government similar to China. Taxed peasants
Nara
Capital of Japan becomes Nara, develops a new central government that can tax the country and becomes the center of Buddhist activity.
Kojiki
records of old things (Yamato throne claim support book)
Nihongi
chronicles of Japan (Yamato throne claim support book)
Todaiji
the place the Daibutsu is held
Daibutsu
a project to help solidify the gov.’s position, a large bronze statue of Buddha was made; it also made it easy to tax aristocrats. It synthesized Buddhism and Shinto as the Buddha had a large sun disc on his head many Japanese associated with Amaterasu.
Heian
Capital is moved to Heian in 794
Fujiwara (Kampaku)
the Fujiwara take control and attract the wealthy to Heian. The Kampaku was a regent of a young king, always a Fujiwara. Emperors would be raised as spoiled brats, and when they reached the age of 20 they would be persuaded to retire, and a Kampaku would be a regent to the emp.’s really young son (Kampakus are always Fujiwaras).
Shoen
plantation in which you only pay and hire people for labor when you needed them
Genji Monogatari
the tale of the Genji, story of court life, popular among women.
Heike Monogatari
the story of the War between Taira and Minamoto.
Shingon
brought by Kukai, believed in Dainichi Yorai
Kukai
brought the Shingon sect to Japan in 806 AD
Mandala
a depiction of Buddha as a radiating sun radiating power and life throughout the universe.
Dainichi Yorai
the Vairocanan (radiating sun Buddha)
Taira no Kiyomori
Around 1160 war broke out between the Taira and the Minamoto. The Taira under the leadership of Taira no Kiyomori defeated the Minamoto and tried to kill all their leaders. Later he took the position of regent a ruled Japan.
Minamoto Yoritomo
survived the war with the Taira, and was raised separated from his brother Yoritomo, until 20 years after the war ended. They started a rebellion against the Taira in 1180, and in 1185 they won the battle of Dannoura. He was the ruler after that and established a military capital in Kamakura, near the Ainu Frontier, and demanded the title of Shogun in 1192. He exiled his brother to ensure his control. He started the Bakafu government, because he hated the life in Kyoto. He stopped Buddhism from spreading to Kamakura, other than Rinzai Zen Buddhism (meditation in action)
Minamoto Yoshitsune
survived the war with the Taira, and was raised separated from his brother Yoritomo, until 20 years after the war ended. They started a rebellion against the Taira in 1180, and in 1185 they won the battle of Dannoura. He was a charismatic person, who could easily gain the support of the people and began to take on a Robin-Hood-type figure, before he was exiled.
Kamakura
where Minamoto Yoritomo set up his military government
Bakafu
tent government, Yoritomo set it up in Kamakura to simulate the government being housed during a war.
Shogun
Title that Yoritomo demanded in 1192, where he ruled separated from the emperor. It means generalissimo.
Bushido
the samurai warrior code
Zen Buddhism
was brought to Kamakura by Eisai, and became the basis of the Samurai Code. Used meditation in action where samurai would meditate while in battle.
Eisai (Rinzai)
brought Rinzai Zen Buddhism to Japan, also brought the tea ceremony, black ink painting, and Zen gardens.
Dogen (Soto)
brought pure meditative Buddhism (Soto Zen) during the Kamakura period
Tea Ceremony
made for samurai to be aware of each instant of life.
Samurai
were taught in the ways of Rinzai Zen Buddhism in Kamakura, and made up the army of the shogun.
Seppuku
ritual suicide in which samurai became martyrs and sacrificed their life for their country, or if the pride of their family was violated.
Jodo
Amida Buddhism or Jodo (Pure land) brought to Japan by Honen in the Heian period. Followers practiced a prayer called the Nembutsu (prayer chants).
Honen
brought Jodo Buddhism to Japan
Bojo Tokimasa (Shikken)
seized the throne after Yorimoto’s death. Was Yorimoto’s wife’s father. He was a regent (Shikken). From 1205-1333 AD Shikken regents ruled.
Kamikaze (Kublai Khan)
The Japanese believed that the Divine Wind (or kamikaze) had saved them from the invasion of Kublai Khan in 1274 and 1281. It was a strong current that caused giant waves to severely weaken Kublai’s navy.
Nichiren (Lotus Sect)
was a fanatic nationalist who claimed to be a Buddhist prophet, “prophesized” the coming of the Kamikaze by saying the Gods would always protect the emperor.
Tendai
Lotus Sect teachings of Nichiren.