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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Difference between an endocrine gland and exocrine gland?
endocrine glands secrete their hormones directly into blood stream.
Exocrine glands secrete substances that are transported by ducts
Difference between tropic hormone and direct hormone?
Tropic hormones stimulate other endocrine glands.
Direct hormones act directly on the target organ
Anterior pituitary is regulated in part by what other endocrine gland?
Hypothalamus
All hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone
LH: luteinizing hormone
ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone
TSH: thyroid stimulating hormone
Prolactin
Endorphins
GH: growth hormone
Function of GH (growth hormone)
promote bone and muscle growth
Function of prolactin
stimulates the production of breast milk
Target gland of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
adrenal cortex
Function of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
causes the thyroid to uptake iodine and produce thyroid hormone
Function of LH
stimulates ovulation in females, testosterone synthesis in males
Function of FSH
stimulates follicle maturation in females, spermatogenesis in males
Hormones synthesized by the posterior pituitary
none: posterior pituitary STORES hormones that are synthesized in the hypothalamus (oxytocin and ADH)
Hormones released by posterior pituitary & their functions
Oxytocin increases the strength of contractions during childbirth; Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) promotes the absorption of water in the nephron
Hormones secreted by the thyroid gland
thyroxine and triiodothyronine (collectively known as thyroid hormones), as well as calcitonin
How do thyroid hormones affect metabolism?
Thyroid hormones increase metabolism
How does calcitonin affect the level of Ca2+ in the blood plasma?
Calcitonin decreases blood plasma Ca2+
What hormone does the parathyroid gland produce and what is its function?
Parathyroid hormone serves to increase blood plasma Ca2+
3 types of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex
glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and cortical sex hormones
Function of cortisol?
cortisol is a glucocorticoid that increases the blood's glucose level
What important mineralocorticoid is released by the adrenal cortex?
Aldosterone: increases water reabsorption in the kidneys
What endocrine gland secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine?
The adrenal medulla
Function of epinephrine and norepinephrine
Increase blood glucose level and heart rate; slow down digestion & increase the basal metabolic rate
Effects of epinephrine?
-increased heart rate
-increased blood glucose level
-increased blood supply to brain, muscle, and heart
-decreased digestion and excretion
Which endocrine organ secretes insulin and glucagon
Pancreas
How does glucagon affect blood glucose levels?
Glucagon increases blood glucose levels
How does insulin affect blood glucose level?
Insulin decreases blood glucose levels
What is the function of somatostatin?
Somatostatin inhibits both glucagon and insulin secretion
What hormones are secreted by the ovaries? What are their functions?
Estrogen: maintains female secondary sexual characteristics
Progesterone: promotes growth/maintenance of endometrium
What is the corpus luteum?
Corpus luteum develops from a ruptured follicle in the ovary and secretes estrogen & progesterone
What hormone is secreted by the pineal gland?
melatonin
How do peptide hormones act on their target cells?
peptide hormones bind to receptors on the cell membrane, thereby initiating a chain of reactions inside the cell (secondary messengers)
How do steroid hormones act on their target cells?
Steroid hormones pass through the cell membrane and act directly inside the cell.
Steroid hormones: starts with _____ or ends with _______
estra- & -one
What hormone is secreted by the kidney?
Erythropoiletin: stimulates bone marrow to increase production of erythrocytes
What hormone is secreted by the the heart?
Atrial natriuretic hormone: involved in osmoregulation
What hormone is secreted by the thymus?
Thymosin: stimulates T lymphocyte development