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36 Cards in this Set

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Serum Na level WNL
135-145
Serum K level WNL
3.5-5.3
Serum Cl level WNL
97-107
Serum CO2 level WNL
22-30
Serum BUN level WNL
5-20
Serum Creatinine level WNL
0.5-1.2
Serum Ca level WNL
8.6-10
Serum P level WNL
2.5-4.5
Serum Mg level WNL
1.3-2.5
Serum Osmolality
280-300
Serum Albumin level WNL
3.5-5
S/S of FVD/hypovolemia
^weight loss, <skin turgor, oliguria,conc. urine, tachy c weak pulse, <CVP, <BP, dizzy, weak, confused, muscle cramps
S/S of FVE/hypervolemia
^weight gain, edema, JVD, crackles, cough, bounding pulse, ^CVP, SOB, ^BP
S/S of hyponatremia, serum Na <135
anorexia, N/V, headache, lethargy, confusion, muscle cramps & twitching, dry skin, tachy, <BP
S/S of hypernatremia, serum Na >145
thirst, ^temp, swollen dry tongue, sticky mucous membranes, hallucinations, lethargy, restlessness, irritability, seizures, pulm edema, N/V, anorexia, ^reflexes, tachy, ^BP
Normal ABG
pH 7.35-7.45
pCO2 35-45
pO2 80-100
HCO3 22-26
ABG showing Acute Respiratory Acidosis
<pH
>pCO2
<pO2
HCO3 WNL
ABG showing Acute Metabolic Acidosis
<pH
pO2 WNL
pCO2 WNL
<HCO3
ABG showing Acute Respiratory Alkalosis
>pH
>pO2
<pCO2
HCO3 WNL
ABG showing Acute Metabolic Alkalosis
>pH
pO2 WNL
pCO2 WNL
>HCO3
Most common cause of metabolic alkalosis
V or gastric suction with loss of H & Cl ions. Hypokalemia.
Chronic metabolic acidosis is associated c
Chronic RF
S/S of Metabolic Acidosis
headache, confusion, drowsy, ^RR & depth, N/V
Respiratory Acidosis is always due to
inadequate excretion of CO2 c inadequate ventilation
Common cause of metabolic acidosis
DKA, Starvation-lactic acid formation, RF
S/S of hypermagnesemia, serum Mg >2.7
flushing, hypotension, drowsy, <reflexes, <RR, diaphoresis,cardiac arrest, coma
S/S of hypomagnesemia, serum Mg <1.8
neuromuscular irritability, insomnia, mood change, anorexia, V, ^reflexes, ^BP
S/S of hypercalcemia, serum Ca >10.5
muscle weakness, constipation, anorexia, <reflexes, polyuria, polydipsia, deep bone pain, N/V
S/S of hypocalcemia, serum Ca <8.5
numbness & tingling in fingers/toes, seizures, carpopedal spasm, ^reflexes, bronchospasm, <PT
S/S of hyperkalemia, serum K >5
tachy/brady, arrythmias, paresthesias, intestinal colic, cramps, anxiety, tall T waves
3 Isotonic Solutions
NS
LR
D5W
Hypotonic Solution
1/2 NS
Hypertonic Solutions
3 or 5% NaCl
TPN or PPN
What 2 fluids are plasma volume expanders
LR
NS
S/S of hypokalemia, serum K <3.5
fatigue, anorexia, N/V, <bowel motility, <reflexes, <BP, VF/VA
S/S of hyperphosphatemia, serum P >4.5
tetany, tachy, anorexia, N/V, muscle weakness, S/S of hypocalcemia