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339 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the anterior thigh muscles used for?
hip flexors
knee extensors
What are the 4 anterior thigh muscles?
pectineus
iliopsoas
sartorius
quadriceps femoris
What are the 3 iliopsoas muscles?
psoas major
psoas minor
iliacus
What are the 4 quadriceps femoris muscles?
rectus femoris
vastus lateralis
vastus medialis
vastus inermedius
What is the origin of the pectineus muscle?
superior ramus of pubis
What is the insertion of the pectineus muscle?
pectineal line of femur (between lesser trochanter and linea aspera)
What is the innervation of the pectineus muscle?
femoral nerve
What does the pectineus muscle do?
flexes and adducts thigh at hip
What is the origin of the psoas major muscle?
transverse processes and bodies of lumbar vertebrae
What is the insertion of the psoas major muscle?
lesser trochanter of femur
What is the innervation of the psoas major muscle?
lumbar nerves (L1-L3)
What does the psoas major muscle do?
flexes thigh at hip
rotates thigh laterally
flexes trunk
What is the origin of the psoas minor muscle?
transverse processes and bodies of T12-L1
What is the insertion of the psoas minor muscle?
pectineal line
iliopectineal eminence
What is the innervation of the psoas minor muscle?
L1-L2
What does the psoas minor muscle do?
flexes thigh at hip
rotates thigh unilaterally
flexes trunk
What is the origin of the iliacus muscle?
iliac fossa
sacrum
What is the insertion of the iliacus muscle?
lesser trochanter of femur
What is the innervation of the iliacus muscle?
femoral nerve (L2, L3)
What does the iliacus muscle do?
flexes thigh at hip
rotates thigh unilaterally
flexes trunk
What do the iliopsoas muscles do?
flexes thigh at hip
rotates thigh laterally
flexes trunk
What is the origin of the sartorius muscle?
anterior superior iliac spine
What is the insertion of the sartorius muscle?
medial surface of body of tibia
What is the innervation of the sartorius muscle?
femoral nerve
What does the sartorius muscle do?
flexes knee
flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh at hip
What is the origin of the rectus femoris muscle?
anterior inferior iliac spine
ilium superior to the acetabulum
What is the insertion of the rectus femoris muscle?
patella via quadriceps tendon
then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
What is the innervation of the rectus femoris muscle?
femoral nerve (L2-L4)
What is the action of the rectus femoris muscle?
flexes thigh at hip
extends leg at knee
What is the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle?
greater trochanter
lateral margin of linea aspera
What is the insertion of the vastus lateralis muscle
patella via quadriceps tendon
then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
What is the insertion of the vastus medialis muscle?
patella via quadriceps tendon
then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
What is the insertion of the vastus intermedius muscle?
patella via quadriceps tendon
then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
What is the origin of the vastus medialis muscle?
interotrochanteric line
medial margin of linea aspera
What is the origin of the vastus intermedius muscle?
anterior and lateral surfaces of diaphysis of femur
What is the innervation of the vastus lateralis muscle?
femoral nerve (L2-L4)
What is the innervation of the vastus medialis muscle?
femoral nerve (L2-L4)
What is the innervation of the vastus intermedius muscle?
femoral nerve (L2-L4)
What is the action of the vastus lateralis muscle?
extends at the knee
What is the action of the vastus medialis muscle?
extends at the knee
What is the action of the vastus intermedius muscle?
extends at the knee
How are the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius muscles different from the rectus femoris muscle?
they do not originate on the hip
Are the vastus muscles hip flexors?
no
What muscles come out in a fan-like projection from the medial thigh that pull the thigh inwards?
medial thigh muscles
What are the 5 adductor muscles?
adductor longus
adductor brevis
adductor magnus
gracilis
obturator externus
What is the origin of the adductor longus muscle?
body of pubis inferior to pubic crest
What is the insertion of the adductor longus muscle?
middle 1/3 of linea apera
What is the innervation of the adductor longus muscle?
obturator nerve (L2-L4)
What is the action of the adductor longus muscle?
adducts and flexes hip joint
medially rotates thigh
What is the origin of the adductor brevis muscle?
body and inferior ramus of pubis
What is the insertion of the adductor brevis muscle?
pectineal line and proximal linea aspera
What is the innervation of the adductor brevis muscle?
obturator nerve (L2-L4)
What is the action of the adductor brevis muscle?
adducts and flexes hip joint
medially rotates thigh
What is the origin of the adductor magnus muscle?
adductor (anterior)
inferior ramus of pubis
ramus of ischium hamstring (posterior)
ischial tuberosity
What is the insertion of the adductor magnus muscle?
adductor: gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera, medial supracondylar line

hamstring: adductor tubercle of femus
What is the innervation of the adductor magnus muscle?
anterior portion: obturator nerve (L2-L4)

posterior portion: sciatic nerve (L4)
What is the action of the adductor magnus muscle?
anterior: adducts thigh, flexes thigh

posterior: adducts thigh, extends thigh
What is the origin of the gracilis muscle?
body and inferior ramus of pubis
What is the insertion of the gracilis muscle?
superior medial surface of tibia
What is the innervation of the gracilis muscle?
obturator nerve (L2-L3)
What is the action of the gracilis muscle?
adducts hip joint
medially rotates thigh
flexes leg at knee
What is the origin of the obturator externus muscle?
external obturator membrane
obturator foramen margin
What is the insertion of the obturator externus muscle?
trochanteric fossa
What is the innervation of the obturator externus muscle?
obturator nerve (L3-L4)
What is the action of the obturator externus muscle?
laterally rotates and abducts thigh at hip joint
steadies head of femus in acetabulum
What group of muscles comprise the medial thigh muscles?
adductors
What muscles innervate the hips and buttocks?
gluteal muscles
What are the 2 layers of the gluteal muscles?
superficial layer
deep layer
What are the 4 muscles of the superficial layer of the gluteal muscles?
gluteus maximus
gluteus medius
gluteus minimus
tensor of fascia lata
What are the 4 muscles of the deep layer of the gluteal muscles?
piriformis
obturator internus
externus gemelli
quadratus femoris
What is the origin of the gluteus maximus muscle?
ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line
dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx
sacrotuberous ligament
What is the insertion of the gluteus maximus muscle?
lateral condyle of tibia
gluteal tuberosity
What is the innervation of the gluteus maximus muscle?
inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1-S2)
What is the action of the gluteus maximus muscle?
extends thigh
lateral rotation
stabilizes thigh (helps in standing)
What is the origin of the gluteus medius muscle?
external surface of ilium between the anterior and posterior gluteal lines
What is the insertion of the gluteus medius muscle?
lateral surface of greater trochanter
What is the innervation of the gluteus medius muscle?
superior gluteal nerve (L5, S1)
What is the action of the gluteus medius muscle?
adduct and medially rotate thigh
levels pelvis during swing phase of walking
What is the origin of the gluteus minimus muscle?
external surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines
What is the insertion of the gluteus minimus muscle?
anterior surface of greater trochanter
What is the innervation of the gluteus minimus muscle?
superior gluteal nerve (L5, S1)
What is the action of the gluteus minimus muscle?
adduct and medially rotate thigh
levels pelvis during swing phase of walking
What is the origin of the tensor of fascia lata muscle?
anterior superior iliac spine
anterior part of iliac crest
What is the insertion of the tensor of fascia lata muscle?
iliotibial tract (lateral condyle of tibia)
What is the innervation of the tensor of fascia lata muscle?
superior gluteal nerve (L5, S1)
What is the action of the tensor of fascia lata muscle?
adduct and medially rotate thigh
levels pelvis during swing phase of walking
What is the origin of the piriformis muscle?
anterior suface of sacrum
sacrotuberous ligament
What is the insertion of the piriformis muscle?
superior border of greater trochanter
What is the innervation of the piriformis muscle?
S1-S2
What is the action of the piriformis muscle?
laterally rotate extended thigh
abduct flexed thigh
steadies head of femus in acetabulum
What is the obturator internus muscle?
pelvis surface of obturator membrane
What is the insertion of the obturator internus muscle?
medial surface of greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa)
What is the innervation of the obturator internus muscle?
obturator internus nerve (L5-S1)
What is the action of the obturator internus muscle?
laterally rotate extended thigh
abduct flexed thigh
steadies head of femus in acetabulum
What is the origin of the superior and inferior gemelli muscle?
superior: ischial spine

inferior: iscial tuberosity
What is the insertion of the superior and inferior gemelli muscle?
medial surface of greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa)
What is the innervation of the superior and inferior gemelli muscle?
superior: obturator internus nerve (L5-S1)

inferior: quadratus femoris nerve (L5-S1)
What is the action of the superior and inferior gemelli muscle?
laterally rotate extended thigh
abduct flexed thigh
steadies head of femus in acetabulum
What is the origin of the quadratus femoris muscle?
lateral border of ischial tuberosity
What is the insertion of the quadratus femoris muscle?
quadrate tubercle (interotrochanteric crest)
What is the action of the quadratus femoris muscle?
laterally rotates thigh
steadies head of femus in acetabulum
What type of muscles are the hamstrings?
posterior thigh muscles
What are the 3 hamstrings?
semitendinosus
semimembranosus
beceps femoris
What are 3 common features of the hamstring muscles?
proximal attachment to ischial tuberosity, deep to gluteus maximus
extension of hip and flexion of knee
innervated by tibial division of sciatic nerve
What is the origin of the semitendinosus muscle?
iscial tuberosity
What is the insertion of the semitendinosus muscle?
medial surface of superior tibia
What is the innervation of the semitendinosus muscle?
tibial division of sciatic nerve (L5, S1-S2)
What is the action of the semitendinosus muscle?
extends thigh
flexes lower leg and medially rotates when knee is flexed
can extend trunk when thigh and leg are flexed
What is the origin of the semimembranosus muscle?
ischial tuberosity
What is the insertion of the semimembranosus muscle?
posterior part of medial condyle of tibia
What is the innervation of the semimembranosus muscle?
tibial division of sciatic nerve (L5, S1-S2)
What is the action of the semimembranosus muscle?
extends thigh
flexes lower leg and medially rotates when knee is flexed
can extend trunk when thigh and leg are flexed
What is the origin of the biceps femoris muscle?
long head: ischial tuberosity

short head: linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line
What is the insertion of the biceps femoris muscle?
lateral side of head of fibula
tendon is split by fibular collateral ligament
What is the innervation of the biceps femoris muscle?
long head: tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1-S2)

short head: common fibular division of sciatic nerve (L5, S1-S2)
What is the action of the biceps femoris muscle?
flexes leg
laterally rotates when knee is flexed
extends thigh
When does the thigh extend?
when semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris muscles act together
What are the 3 types of muscles of the lower leg?
anterior compartment (dorsiflexors/extensors)
lateral compartment (evators)
posterior compartment (plantarflexors)
What are the 4 dorsiflexor/extensor muscles of the anterior compartment?
tibialis anterior
extensor digitorum longus
extensor hallicus longus
fibularis tertius
What are the 2 evertor muscles of the lateral compartment?
fibularis longus
fibularis brevis
What are the 2 types of plantarflexors of the posterior compartment?
superfiscial muscles
deep muscles
What are the 3 superficial plantarflexor muscles of the posterior compartment?
gastrocnemius
soleus
plantaris
What are the 4 deep plantarflexor muscles of the posterior compartment?
popliteus
flexor hallicus longus
flexor digitorum longus
tibialis posterior
What is the origin of the tibialis anterior muscle?
lateral condyle and superior lateral surface of tibia
interosseous membrane
What is the insertion of the tibialis anterior muscle?
medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform
base of 1st metatarsal
What is the innervation of the tibialis anterior muscle?
deep fibular nerve (L4-L5)
What is the action of the tibialis anterior muscle?
dorsiflexes ankle
inversts foot
What is the origin extensor digitorum longus muscle?
lateral condyle of tibia
superior 3/4 of medial fibula
interosseous membrane
What is the insertion of the extensor digitorum longus muscle?
middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
What is the innervation of the extensor digitorum longus muscle?
deep fibular nerve (L5-S1)
What is the action of the extensor digitorum longus muscle?
extends lateral 4 digits and dorsiflexes ankle
What is the origin of the extensor hallicus longus muscle?
anterior surface of the fibula
interosseous membrane
What is the insertion of the extensor hallicus longus muscle?
dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of great toe (hallux)
What is the innervation of the extensor hallicus longus muscle?
deep fibular nerve (L5-S1)
What is the action of the extensor hallicus longus muscle?
extends great toe
dorsiflexes ankle
What is the origin of the fibularis tertius muscle?
inferior 1/3 of anterior surface of fibula
interosseous membrane
What is the insertion of the fibularis tertius muscle?
dorsum of base of 5th metatarsal
What is the innervation of the fibularis tertius muscle?
deep fibular nerve (L5-S1)
What is the action of the fibularis tertius muscle?
dorsiflexes ankle
inverts foot
What is the origin of the gastrocnemius muscle?
lateral head: lateral condyle of femus

medial head: popliteal surface of femur, superior to medial condyle
What is the insertion of the gastrocnemius muscle?
posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
What is the innervation of the gastrocnemius muscle?
tibial nerve (S1-S2)
What is the action of the gastrocnemius muscle?
plantarflexes ankle (when knee is extended)
raises heel while walking
flexes leg at knee joint
What is the origin of the soleus muscle?
posterior head of fibula
superior 1/4 of posterior fibula
superior medial border of tibia
What is the insertion of the soleus muscle?
posterior surface of calcaneus vis calcaneal tendon
What is the innervation of the soleus muscle?
tibial nerve (S1-S2)
What is the action of the soleus muscle?
plantarflexes ankle (regardless of knee position)
steadies leg on foot
What is the origin of the plantaris muscle?
inferior lateral supracondylar line of femur
oblique popliteal ligament
What is the insertion of the plantaris muscle?
posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
What is the innervation of the plantaris muscle?
tibial nerve (S1-S2)
What is the action of the plantaris muscle?
assists gastrocnemius in plantarflexion (weakly)
What is the origin of the fibularis longus muscle?
head and superior 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula
What is the insertion of the fibularis longus muscle?
base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
What is the innervation of the fibularis longus muscle?
superficial fibular nerve (L5, S1-S2)
What is the action of the fibularis longus muscle?
everts foot
plantarflexes ankle (weakly)
What is the origin of the fibularis brevis muscle?
inferior 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula
What is the insertion of the fibularis brevis muscle?
dorsal surface of tuberosity on lateral side of base of 5th metatarsal
What is the innervation of the fibularis brevis muscle?
superficial fibular nerve (L5, S1-S2)
What is the action of the fibularis brevis muscle?
everts foot
plantarflexes ankle (weakly)
What is the origin of the popliteus muscle?
lateral condyle of femur and lateral meniscus
What is the insertion of the popliteus muscle?
posterior surface of tibia
superior to soleal line
What is the innervation of the popliteus muscle?
tibial nerve (L4-S1)
What is the action of the popliteus muscle?
weakly flexes knee
medially rotates tibia
What is the origin of the flexor hallicus longus muscle?
inferior 2/3 of posterior fibula
inferior part of interosseous membrane
What is the insertion of the flexor hallicus longus muscle?
base of distal phalanx of hallux
What is the innervation of the flexor hallicus longus muscle?
tibial nerve (S2-S3)
What is the action of the flexor hallicus longus muscle?
flexes hallux
weakly plantarflexes
supports medial longitudinal arch
What is the origin of the flexor digitorum longus muscle?
medial part of posterior tibia inferior to soleal line
via broad ligament of fibula
What is the insertion of the flexor digitorum longus muscle?
bases of distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
What is the innervation of the flexor digitorum longus muscle?
tibial nerve (S2-S3)
What is the action of the flexor digitorum longus muscle?
flexes lateral 4 digits
plantarflexes ankle
supports longitudinal arch
What is the origin of the tibialis posterior muscle?
interosseous membrane
posterior tibia inferior to soleal line
posterior surface of fibula
What is the insertion of the tibialis posterior muscle?
tuberosity of navicular cuneiform and cuboid
bases of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsals
What is the innervation of the tibialis posterior muscle?
tibial nerve (L4-L5)
What is the action of the tibialis posterior muscle?
plantarflexes ankle
inverts foot
How many muscles are there in the foot?
20
What type of muscles are there in the foot?
14 plantar
2 dorsal
4 intermediate
Name a dorsal muscle of the foot.
extensor digitorum brevis
What is the origin of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle?
calcaneus
inferior extensor retinaculum
What is the insertion of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle?
tendons of extensor digitorum longus
Name 3 1st layer plantar muscles.
abductor hallicus
flexor digitorum brevis
abductor digiti minimi
What is the origin of the abductor hallicus muscle?
calcaneus
plantar aponeurosis
flexor retinaculum
What is the insertion of the abductor hallicus muscle?
medial surface of proximal phalanx of hallux
What is the origin of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle?
calcaneus
plantar aponeurosis
What is the insertion of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle?
sides of middle phalanx of toes 2-5
What is the origin of the abductor digiti minimi?
calcaneus
plantar aponeurosis
What is the insertion of the abductor digiti minimi?
lateral side of proximal phalanx of 5th toe wiht the tendon of the flexor digiti minimi brevis
What are 2 2nd layer deep plantar muscles of the foot?
quadratus plantae
lubricals
What is the origin of the quadratus plantae?
calcaneus
What is the insertion of the quadratus plantae?
tendon of flexor digitorum longus
What is the origin of the lumbricals muscle?
tendons of flexor digitorum longus
What is the insertion of the lubricals muscle?
tendon of extensor digitorum longus
Name 3 third layer plantar muscles.
flexor hallicus brevis
adductor hallicus
flexor digiti minimi brevis
What is the origin of the flexor hallicus brevis?
cuboid
3rd lateral cuneiform
What is the insertion of the flexor hallicus brevis?
medial and lateral sides of proximal phalanx of the great toe
What is the origin of the flexor digiti minimi brevis?
metatarsal 5
tendon on peroneus longus
What is the insertion of the flexor digiti minimi brevis?
lateral side of proximal phalanx of 5th toe
Name 2 fourth layer plantar muscles.
dorsal interossei
plantar interossei
What is the origin of the dorsal interossei muscles?
adjacent side of metatarsals
What is the insertion of the dorsal interossei muscle?
proximal phalanges
What is the origin of the plantar interossei?
metatarsals 3-5
What is the insertion of the plantar interossei?
medial side of proximal phalanges
What muscles provide arch support?
4th layer plantar muscles
What are 5 joints of the lower limb?
coxal (hip) joint
knee joint
tibiofibular joints
ankle (talcrural) joint
tarsal joints
What are 2 tibiofibular joints?
proximal tibiofibular joint
distal tibiofibular joint
What are 2 types of tarsal joints?
intertarsal joints
tarsometatarsal joints
What are 4 intertarsal joints?
talocalcaneal joint
talocalcaneonavicular joint
calcaneocuboid joint
transverse tarsal (midtarsal) joint
What are 2 tarsometatarsal joints?
metatarsophalangeal joint
interphalangeal joints
What type of joint is the hip (coaxal) joint?
multiaxial ball and socket joint
What does the hip (coaxal) joint do?
abduction and adduction
flexion and extension
circumduction and rotation
What stabalizes the hip joint?
acetabular labrum
What closes the acetabular notch?
transverse acetabular ligament
What arteries supply the hip (coaxal) joint?
medial femoral circumflex artery
lateral femoral circumflex artery
superior gluteal artery
inferior gluteal artery
obturator artery
What nerves supply the hip (coaxal) joint?
femoral nerve
obturator nerve
superior gluteal nerve
What encloeses the head and neck of the femur?
fibrous capsule
What are the 5 ligaments of the hip joint?
iliofemoral ligament
ischiofemoral ligament
pubofemoral ligament
ligamentum capitis femoris
transverse acetabular ligament
What resists hyperextension of the hip joint?
iliofemoral ligament
What reinforces the fibrous capsule anteriorly?
iliofemoral ligament
What is the largest and most importatnt coxal ligament?
iliofemoral ligament
What ligament reinforces fibrous capsule posteriorly?
ischiofemoral ligament
What extends from the ischial portion of the acetabular rim to the neck of the femur?
ischiofemoral ligament
What ligament reinforces the fibrous capsule inferiorly?
pubofemoral ligament
What extends from the pubic portion of the acetabular rim and superior pubic ramus to the inferior femoral neck?
pubofemoral ligament
What extends fromt he acetabular notch and transverse ligament to the fovea capitis femoris?
ligamentum capitis femoris
What ligament bridges the acetabular notch?
transverse acetabular ligament
What ligament forms a foramen?
transverse acetabular ligament
What type of joint is the knee joint?
hinge type synovial joint
What joint is between the two condyles of the femur and tibia?
knee joint
What is the saddle joint between the femur and patella?
knee joint
What type of movement does the knee joint provide?
flexion
extension
minor rotation
What joint is attached via this capsule to the margins of the femoral condyles, to the patella and patellar ligaments, and to the tibia at the margins of the tibial condyles?
knee joint
What stabalizes the knee joint on the lateral side?
biceps femoris and gastrocnemius tendons
iliotibial tract
fibular collateral ligaments
What stabalizes the knee joint on the medial side?
sartorius muscle
gracilis muscle
medial head of gastrocnemius muscle
semitendinosus muscle
semimebranosus muscle
tibial collateral ligament
What arteries supply the knee joint?
genicular branches of the popliteal artery
descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery
articular branch of the descending genicular artery
anterior tibial recurrent artery
What nerves supply the knee joint?
sciatic nerve
femoral nerve
obturator nerve
What are the 8 ligaments of the knee joint?
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
posterior cruciate ligament
medial meniscus
lateral meniscus
transverse ligament
medial (tibial) collateral ligament
lateral (fibular) collateral ligament
patellar ligament
What ligament is inside the knee joint capsule and outside the synovial cavity?
anterior cruciate ligament
What ligament attaches to the intercondylar area of the tibia?
anterior cruciate ligament
What ligament prevents backward slipping of the femur on the tibia?
anterior cruciate ligament
What ligament prevents hyperextension of the knee?
anterior cruciate ligament
What ligament is lax when the knee is flexed and taunt when the knee is extended?
anterior cruciate ligament
What ligament is inside the knee joint capsule and outside the synovial joint?
posterior cruciate ligament
What attaches to the posterior intercondylar area?
posterior cruciate ligament
What ligament limits hyperextendions of the knee and prevents forwards displacement of the femur?
posterior cruciate ligament
What ligament is lax when the knee is extended and taunt when the knee is flexed?
posterior cruciate ligament
What ligament is outside the synovial cavity and within the capusle?
medial meniscus
What ligament is attached to the interarticular area of the tibia?
medial meniscus
What ligament is a cushion or shock absorber and facillitates lubrication?
medial meniscus
What ligament is outside the synovial cavity and is within the capsule?
lateral meniscus
What ligament is C shaped?
medial meniscus
What ligament is approximately circular?
lateral meniscus
What ligament is incompletely attached to the upper aspect of the tibia?
lateral meniscus
What ligament forms a more stable base for the articulation of the femoral condyle?
lateral meniscus
What ligament binds the anterior horns of the medial and lateral semilunar cartilages?
transverse ligament
What ligament is attached to the medial meniscus and the the medial aspects of the articular capsule and tibial condyle?
medial (tibial) collateral ligament (TCL)
What ligament prevents the medial displacement of the leg (and thus abduction of the tibia/fibula)?
medial (tibial) collateral ligament (TCL)
What ligament has a firm attachment to the medial meniscus?
medial (tibial) collateral ligament (TCL)
What happens to the medial meniscus when the the TCL is damaged?
it is damaged also
What ligament has a rounded cord and is well separated from the joint capsule?
lateral (fibular) collateral ligament
What ligament extends between the alteral femoral epicondyle and head of the fibula?
lateral (fibular) collateral ligament
What ligament prevents lateral displacement of the femur?
lateral (fibular) collateral ligament
What ligament has a strong, flattened fibrous band?
patellar ligament
What ligament is the continuation of the quadriceps femoris tendon?
patellar ligament
What ligament extends from the apex of the patella to the tibial tuberosity?
patellar ligament
What ligament goes over the patella?
patellar ligament
What are 3 bursa of the knee joint?
suprapatellar bursa
prepatellar bursa (subcutaneous)
infrapatellar bursa
What bursa is deep to the quadriceps femoris and extends superior to the patella?
suprapatellar bursa
What is the major bursa communicating to the knee joint cavity?
prepatellar bursa
What bursa is the subcutaneous bursa that goes over the patellar ligament and deep infrapatellar bursa (deep to the patellar ligament)?
infrapatellar bursa
What are the 2 tibiofibular joints?
proximal tibiofibular joint
distal tibiofibular joint
What is a plane synovial joint between the head of the fibula and tibia?
proximal tibiofibular joint
What is a fibrous joint between tibia and fibula that does not move much?
distal tibiofibular joint
What type of joint is the ankle (talocrural) joint?
hinge type synovial joint
What joint is at the inferior ends of the tibia and fibula and superior surface of the talus?
ankle (talocrural) joint
Where do the tibia and fibula articulate?
talus
What joint permits dorsiflexion and plantar flexion?
ankle (talocrural) joint
What is reinforced medially by the medial (deltoid) ligament and laterally by the lateral ligament?
articular capsule
What prevents anterior and posterior slipping of the tibia and fibula on the talus?
articular capsule
What are 4 parts of the medial (deltoid) ligament of the anklejoint?
tibionavicular
tibiocalcaneal
anterior tibiotalar
posterior tibiotalar
What ligament runs from the medial malleolus to the tarsal bones?
medial (deltoid) ligament
What ligament prevents overeversion of the foot?
medial (deltoid) ligament
What ligament maintains the medial longitudinal arch?
medial (deltoid) ligament
What are 3 parts of the lateral ligament of the anklejoint?
anterior talofibular
posterior talofibular
calcaneofibular
What ligament resists inversion of the foot?
lateral ligament
What ligament may be torn during ankle sprain?
lateral ligament
What are the 4 tarsal joints?
intertarsal joints
tarsometatarsal joints
metatarsophalangeal joints
interphalangeal joints
What are 4 intertarsal joints?
talocalcaneal (subtalar) joint
talocalcaneonavicular joint
calcaneocuboid joint
transverse tarsal (midtarsal) joint
What joint is between the talus and the calcaneus?
talocalcaneal (subtalar) joint
What joint allows inversion and eversion of the foot?
talocalcaneal (subtalar) joint
What joint is part of the transverse tarsal joint?
talocalcaneonavicular joint
What type of joint is the talocalcaneonavicular joint?
ball and socket joint
What joint is supported by the spring (plantar calcaneonavicular) ligament?
calcaneocuboid joint
What joint is part of the transverse tarsal joint?
calcaneocuboid joint
What type of joint is the calcaneocuboid joint?
saddle joint
What type of joint attaches the calcaneus and cuboid bones?
calcaneocuboid joint
What joint is supported by short plantar and long plantar ligaments?
calcaneocuboid joint
What is the talonavicular portion of the talocalcaneonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints?
transverse tarsal (midtarsal) joint
What is the movement of the transverse tarsal joint?
inversion and exversion of foot
What type of joints are tarsometatarsal joints?
plane joints
What unites tarsometatarsal joints?
articular cartilages
What reinforces tarsometatarsal joints?
plantar ligament
dorsal ligament
interosseous ligament
What type of joints are metatarsophalangeal joints?
ellipsoid (condyloid) joints
What type of joints are interphalangeal joints?
hinge joints
What are 8 nerves of the leg?
obturator nerve
femoral nerve
superior gluteal nerve
inferior gluteal nerve
posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
sciatic nerve
common peroneal (fibular) nerve
tibial nerve
What nerve arises from the lumbar plexus (L3-L4)?
obturator nerve
What nerve enters the thigh through the obturator foramen?
obturator nerve
What are the 2 branches of the obturator nerve?
anterior
posterior
What does the anterior obturator nerve innervate?
adductor longus
adductor brevis
gracilis
pectineus
What does the posterior obturator nerve innervate?
obturator externus
adductor magnus
What nerve arises from the lumbar plexus (L2-L4)?
femoral nerve
what nerve enters the thigh by passing deep to the inguinal ligament and lateral to the femoral sheath?
femoral nerve
What does the femoral sheath contain?
femoral artery, nerve, and vein
What are the cutaneous branches of the femoral nerve?
anterior femoral cutaneous nerve
saphenous nerve
What nerve accompanies femoral vessels in adductor canal?
cutaneous branch of femoral nerve
What nerve arises from the sacral plexus (L4-S1)?
superior gluteal nerve
What nerve enters the buttocks through greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis?
superior gluteal nerve
What does the superior gluteal nerve innervate?
gluteaus medius and minimus
tensor fascia lata
hip joint
What nerve arises from the sacral plexus (L5-S2)?
inferior gluteal nerve
What nerve enters buttocks through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis?
inferior gluteal nerve
What does the inferior gluteal nerve innervate?
gluteus maximus
What nerve arises from the sacral plexus (S1-S3)?
posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
What nerve enters the buttocks through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis?
posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
What nerve descends on the posterior thigh and innervates teh skin of the buttocks, thigh, and calf?
posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
What nerve arises from the sacral plexus (L4-S3)?
sciatic nerve
What is the largest nerve in the body?
sciatic nerve
What nerve enters the buttocks through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis?
sciatic nerve
What nerve innervates the hamsting muscles?
sciatic nerve
What part of the hamstring muscles does the sciatic nerve not innervate?
short head of biceps femoris
What does the lateral sural cutaneous nerve of the common peroneal nerve supply?
skin on the lateral part of the back of the leg
What does the recurrent articular branch of the common peroneal nerve supply?
knee joint
What nerve innervates the skin of the lower leg and foot?
superficial peroneal nerve
What nerve arises from the common peroneal nerve and divides into the lateral and the medial branch?
deep peroneal nerve
What nerve supplies the extensor digitorum brevis?
lateral branch of the deep peroneal nerve
What nerve supplies the 1st and 2nd toes?
medial branch of deep peroneal nerve
What are the 3 branches of the tibial nerve?
medial superior genicular
middle genicular
medial inferior genicular artery to the knee
What does the tibial nerve terminate in?
medial and lateral plantar nerves
What nerve innervates the abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis?
medial plantar nerve
What nerve innervates the quadratus plantae, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis and plantar and dorsal interossei, lateral lumbricals, and adductor hallicus?
lateral plantar nerve
What are the 8 arteries of the leg?
superior gluteal artery
inferior gluteal artery
obturator artery
femoral artery
popliteal artery
posterior tibial artery
anterior tibial artery
dorsalis pedis artery