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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
reasons for iv's
medication and nutrients,
blood,chemo, pca, keep vein open for quick access
where are peripheral lines
arms, legs, scalp for infants
where are central lines located
subclavian vein.
pt must be relaxed for iv or they may experience these
fight or flight, spasm of veins blood then shunted from peripheral to vital organs.
prior to setting up or bringing in equipment nurse should do what
spend time explaining all components of therapy and give pt time to ask questions.
if pt refuses.
listen, reasure, ask why, explain, report and document
when applying torniquet, never do these
apply too tight that it obstructs arterial flow or leave on longer then one minute.
methods to enhance venous access. (7)
gravity, clench fist, friction, percussion, compresses, transillumination, hair removal.
special consideratoins for pts who are (4)
obese, peripheral edema,
altered skin and vessels,
anticoagulation therapy
ask pt if they have allergy to
medication, food, latex, iodine, tape
high risk includes pts who are (6)
women, asthmatics, hx of allergies, latex exposures,allergies to fruit and veggies, especially tropical fruits, those who get intermittent caths.
If unsuccessful poke do not
re try with same needle.
a nurse should only try __ times to do a successful stick
2
accurate charting of iv is?
date time, what vein, gague style of needle, infusate administere
how long can you leave in an iv done by ems,
change asap and before 48hrs
iv caths should be changed every
3 days
hanging bag of lipid containing solutions (3-1)must be infused within how many hrs
24
hanging back of lipid emulsions alone must be done in
12hrs
blood must be infused within
4hrs
caps on ivs should be changed no more
once every 3 days
what is homeostasis
the physiologic term for the process that contributes to a state of internal constancy
primary chemical component of the human body
water
what is osmolarity
osmotic pull or pressure exerted by all particles per unit of solution influenced by qwuanity of dissolved particles that exer an osmotic pull
you'd give hopytonic fluids with
dialysis or DKA
would not give hypotonic fluids with pts that are
edemic
fluid stays within the intravascular space.no fluid flowing into or out of the intravascular spaces
isotonic
lower number of molecules then serum so fluid shifts from the intravascular spaces to the interstitial spaces
hypotonic
this fluid can cause ICP and cardivascular collapse r/t the shift from the is to the cells.
hypotonic
.45 NaCl and 2.5 dextrose are examples of
hypotonic
has less osmolarity then serum. water is then pulled from the vascular compartment
hypotonic
this has a higher osmolarity then serum. pulls fluids and electrolyts from the is into the intravascular compartment
hypertonic
d5%, .45Nacl, d5%LR, blood and slbumin
hypertonic
fluid shifts from the interstitial spaces into the intravascualar spaces
hypertonic
crystalloids are
effective volume expanders
crystaloids are ideal for pts who
need fluid replacement.
when using an isotonic crystalloid to control blood pressure from blood loss,what is the ratio
3ml of crystolloid to every 1ml of blood loss
watch for pulmonary edema with what fluid replacements
crystalloid
examples of crystalloids are
LR, NS
initial crystalloid replacement should not exceed how much before whole blood is instituted
3 liters.
colloids contain what that are too large to pass out of the capillary membrain and so they remail in the vascular compartment
molecules, usually proteins
colloids draw fluid from the .... and into the .....
interstitial and intracellular compartments
vascular compartment.
examples of colloids are
albumin and steroids
to deliver large amounts of fluid, what gauge needle should be used
14-16
this vein needs to be supported by tongue blades or hand board
digital dorsal vein
gauge needle that is used in digital dorsal vein are
22-24
primary choice for iv use
dorsal metacarpal vein, cephalic vein
pain radiating wupward from site usually is due to
medication
pain at site is due to
cath, nerve tendon, ligament damage
process in which a substance enters or infuses into another substance or surrounding area
infiltration
actual escape or leakage of materia from a vessel into the surrounding tissue
extrvasation
an agent that is irritating and causes blisters
vesicant