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295 Cards in this Set

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Gus has been picking up some extra shifts at work to make ends meet, including taking some all-night shifts. He has been making some costly errors on the job that he's never made before, even when he worked longer hours. What has caused the change?
His lack of sleep slows his thinking and his problem-solving abilities.
During adulthood, fluid intelligence:
decreases.
The many changes of menopause are caused by reduced:
estrogen.
When do most adults reach their peak of intellectual ability?
between the ages of 40 and 60
Hearing is most acute at what age?
10
The first visible signs of senescence may be observed in the:
skin
Women experience menopause; men experience:
andropause.
Joanna, at adulthood, is finding that the size of newspaper print is getting smaller. To compensate, she holds the paper farther away from her eyes than when she was younger. What is a more likely explanation for her need to move the paper?
She has grown farsighted.
Hal has consumed large quantities of alcohol for the past 30 years. He is at risk for a disease marked by irreversible brain damage known as:
Wernike-Korsakoff syndrome.
As Tom helped himself to a fourth beer, he announced to everyone at the barbecue that alcohol is healthy in moderation. How does the text define “moderation”?
no more than two drinks of moderate size per day
Martha was a 21-year-old girl living in the United States in the early 1800s. Suzanne is a 21-year-old girl living in the United States in 2008. What is a primary developmental difference between these two young women?
Suzanne is not under pressure to bear as many children as possible, as Martha was.
Theodore frequently hears voices and says that the KGB is coming to arrest him. His thinking seems very disorganized. From which of the following is Theodore most likely suffering?
schizophrenia
Thinking may become more ______ and ______ with each year of college.
reflective; expansive
Which of the following refers to the body's natural adjustment to any disruptions?
homeostasis
The pattern in which a person limits sexual activity to one steady partner at a time is called:
serial monogamy.
According to Erikson, once the emerging adult has established a sense of identity, they will need to resolve which of the following crises?
intimacy versus isolation
Which of the following statements is true regarding the overall health and longevity of emerging adults?
Worldwide, emerging adults can now expect to live longer, healthier lives than a few decades ago.
A person between the ages of 18 and 25 is entering a new developmental stage called:
emerging adulthood.
While nature is primarily responsible for the maturity and health of the reproductive system in emerging adults, which of the following more strongly influences birth rates and sexual activity?
social context
Which of the following characterizes integrated adults?
They are able to regulate emotions and logic.
The many changes of menopause are caused by reduced:
estrogen
Over the long run, ______ intelligence is prized whenever life circumstances change or new challenges arise.
creative
During adulthood, fluid intelligence:
decreases
Compared to novices, experts:
are more intuitive.
By the end of middle age, nearly everyone needs:
reading glasses.
The most basic statistic regarding health is:
mortality.
Research studies on alcohol use have shown that:
moderate use of alcohol may increase longevity.
Hal has consumed large quantities of alcohol for the past 30 years. He is at risk for a disease marked by irreversible brain damage known as:
Wernike-Korsakoff syndrome.
One biological reason why women tend to live longer, healthier lives is that:
the second X chromosome or extra estrogen protects them.
Adulthood covers which four decades of life?
25–65
Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?
obsessive-compulsive disorder
The number of births per woman that would be required to maintain a nation's population with no increases or decreases is the:
replacement rate.
Thinking may become more ______ and ______ with each year of college.
reflective; expansive
What happens in the brain of the emerging adult as he or she continues to gain life experience?
New dendrites are formed, while unused neurons disappear.
Martha was a 21-year-old girl living in the United States in the early 1800s. Suzanne is a 21-year-old girl living in the United States in 2008. What is a primary developmental difference between these two young women?
Suzanne is not under pressure to bear as many children as possible, as Martha was.
Which of the following characterizes integrated adults?
They are able to regulate emotions and logic.
If you were to ask a 22-year-old college student how she feels about premarital sex, and she agrees with the majority, she would say that premarital sex is:
acceptable.
Gender differences in senescence indicate that:
women age more slowly.
Over the long run, ______ intelligence is prized whenever life circumstances change or new challenges arise.
creative
As Tom helped himself to a fourth beer, he announced to everyone at the barbecue that alcohol is healthy in moderation. How does the text define “moderation”?
no more than two drinks of moderate size per day
Difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of a “physical, mental, or emotional condition” is called:
disability.
Diseases and chronic conditions associated with aging:
may be strongly affected by lifestyle.
For a typical middle-aged adult, intelligence increases:
in the specific areas that reflect his or her interest.
According to Erikson, once the emerging adult has established a sense of identity, they will need to resolve which of the following crises?
intimacy versus isolation
If you were to ask a 22-year-old college student how she feels about premarital sex, and she agrees with the majority, she would say that premarital sex is:
acceptable.
Which of the following refers to the body's natural adjustment to any disruptions?
homeostasis
What percentage of mood disorders begin in emerging adulthood?
25
The term g refers to:
general intelligence.
Infertility is defined as unable to conceive after trying for at least what period of time?
12 months
Over the long run, ______ intelligence is prized whenever life circumstances change or new challenges arise.
creative
Gender differences in senescence indicate that:
women age more slowly.
Adulthood covers which four decades of life?
25–65
Which of the following refers to the body's natural adjustment to any disruptions?
homeostasis
What percentage of mood disorders begin in emerging adulthood?
25
What happens in the brain of the emerging adult as he or she continues to gain life experience?
New dendrites are formed, while unused neurons disappear.
The first visible signs of senescence may be observed in the:
skin.
For almost every drug, use becomes more widespread from about age ______ to ______.
10; 25
Angel's parents always wanted him to be part of the family business—and Angel never questioned this. At 21, Angel decided to leave the business to become a teacher. Angel is resisting:
identity foreclosure.
Barrett is serving a 2-year mission for his church at the age of 19. When he returns home from his mission assignment, he will decide whether or not to attend college and will make decisions about career and family. Barrett is currently experiencing the identity status of:
moratorium
Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is:
part of a warm, supportive relationship.
Which of the following tends to be true of teens who take a virginity pledge during high school?
After high school, they are more likely to marry young and are less likely to use contraception.
Elyse broke up with her boyfriend after a fight. She has spent the last week repeatedly going over the fight in her mind, which caused her to sink into depression. Her continual reliving the fight is known as:
rumination.
Approximately 1 in _____ adolescent girls is affected by clinical depression.
5
Most adolescents need a bridge in their transition from childhood to young adulthood, easing the shift from childish behaviors to more independent ones. This bridge is generally provided by:
cliques and crowds.
According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is to:
form a coherent identity.
Which parenting style is least effective during adolescence?
neglectful
Child sexual abuse is most common in children ages:
12–15.
Over the last two centuries, children have tended to reach their adult height earlier and are taller than their ancestors. What is the name for this type of phenomenon?
secular trend
Using inductive thinking, a person might think, “If it barks like a dog, and wags its tail like a dog, it must be a ______.”
dog
For girls, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:
the beginning of breast development, the growth spurt, and menarche.
Spreading insults and rumors by means of e-mails, text messages, or Web postings is called:
cyberbullying.
Because of the obsession with body image during adolescence, girls may ingest ______ and boys may take ______.
diet pills; steroids
For males, the hormone that produces most sexual changes is:
testosterone
The first outward sign of puberty in a typical girl is:
the onset of breast growth.
Ryan's thinking is no longer restricted to personal experience as it had been earlier in his life. Ryan is in the stage of:
formal operational thought.
The term menarche refers to:
a girl's first menstrual period.
Gender identity refers to ______, while sexual orientation refers to ______.
self-definition as male or female; erotic desires
Barrett is serving a 2-year mission for his church at the age of 19. When he returns home from his mission assignment, he will decide whether or not to attend college and will make decisions about career and family. Barrett is currently experiencing the identity status of:
moratorium
In the United States, parent-child conflict peaks in:
early adolescence.
According to international statistics, teenagers in the United States have many more births than teenagers in any other developed nation. The reason for this troubling statistic is that:
teenagers in the United States use less contraception than those in other countries.
A great deal of parental interference and control is a strong predictor of:
adolescent depression.
le bonnet d'ane
dunce cap
Marsha says, “There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me.” Marsha is demonstrating:
her belief in an imaginary audience.
The dual-process model of thinking is defined by the notion that:
two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli.
The biological events that begin puberty involve a hormonal signal from the:
hypothalamus.
Which of the following is the most frequently reported STI?
chlamydia
Child sexual abuse is most common in children ages:
12–15.
John noticed that his testes have grown larger. His next growth event will probably be:
his pubic hair begins to appear.
The hormone that causes the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosterone is:
gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
Suicidal ideation is more common in:
girls than in boys.
LeeAnn is a 16-year-old who has just started working 25 hours a week at a local ice cream store. If she is like the average employed adolescent, she is more likely than students who are not employed to:
get poor grades.
For both girls and boys, puberty typically begins as young as ______ years or as late as ______ years.
7; 16
Family conflict and stress:
may cause the early onset of puberty.
One of the most prominent aspects of adolescent thought is the ability to:
think in terms of possibilities.
Which of the following is true regarding the use of antidepressants to treat depression in adolescents?
The use of antidepressants when combined with cognitive behavioral therapy decreases depression.
LeeAnn is a 16-year-old who has just started working 25 hours a week at a local ice cream store. If she is like the average employed adolescent, she is more likely than students who are not employed to:
get poor grades.
Arrest statistics do not accurately reflect the prevalence of adolescent delinquency because:
many offenders are never caught.
One reason why adolescents' nutritional habits may be poor is:
anxiety about their body image.
For both girls and boys, puberty typically begins as young as ______ years or as late as ______ years.
8; 14
Child sexual abuse is most common in children ages:
12–15.
The hormone that causes the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosterone is:
gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
David is excitable, impulsive, and very active in addition to having difficulty concentrating. He might have:
ADHD.
Most likely, autism is caused by:
genetic vulnerability coupled with other factors.
Joshua and Tiffany have both been diagnosed with ADHD. Who is more likely to be prescribed medication for the condition?
Joshua
The average 7 to 11-year-old gains about ______ inches per year.
2
Seven-year-old Henry has been diagnosed as having both ADHD and dyslexia. Which of the following terms applies to Henry having both conditions together?
comorbidity
Developmental psychopathology has given us the following lesson applicable to all children:
Abnormality is normal.
Which of the following types of prevention tends to be the most difficult because it involves large-scale societal changes?
primary
In the school years, Piaget believed that children are in the period of:
concrete operational thought.
By the end of middle childhood, the capacity of long-term memory is:
virtually limitless.
The DSM-IV-R is a manual for:
diagnosing mental disorders.
Barrett is serving a 2-year mission for his church at the age of 19. When he returns home from his mission assignment, he will decide whether or not to attend college and will make decisions about career and family. Barrett is currently experiencing the identity status of:
moratorium.
Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is:
part of a warm, supportive relationship.
Most adolescents need a bridge in their transition from childhood to young adulthood, easing the shift from childish behaviors to more independent ones. This bridge is generally provided by:
cliques and crowds.
Which parenting style is least effective during adolescence?
neglectful
Child sexual abuse is most common in children ages:
12–15.
The combined total amount of stress and disease with which an individual must cope is known as:
allostatic load.
Divorce is most likely to occur within the first ______ years of a wedding.
5
Most developmental theorists today believe that:
stages of adult development are not entirely orderly and predictable.
Married teenagers are likely to become ______ and ______.
depressed; aggressive
Mel is a retired stockbroker who enjoys mentoring children at the local YMCA in the use of computers. He is demonstrating the psychosocial stage of:
generativity versus stagnation.
Aunt Emily is the family's kinkeeper. This means that she assumes responsibility for:
gathering the family for holidays, sending birthday reminders, and disseminating family communications.
Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parents:
improves with age.
Susan's grandmother, at age 80, is in the final stage of adulthood, namely:
integrity versus despair.
Families with stepchildren, foster children, or adoptive children experience greater challenges in developing secure attachments. This is because:
some children remain strongly attached to their birth parents.
All of Paulo and Geneva's children have moved away, started families and begun working on their careers. According to the text, Paulo and Geneva's home is now a(n):
empty nest.
The first stage of Alzheimer disease is characterized by:
absentmindedness about recent events.
Abraham Maslow maintained that older adults are:
more likely than younger people to reach self-actualization.
The advice a doctor is most likely to give to an elderly patient is to:
consume a healthy diet.
Vascular dementia is caused by:
insufficient supply of blood to the brain.
A disease that can produce dementia is:
AIDS.
With age, what happens to the brain?
Activity level sometimes increases, sometimes decreases, and sometimes stays the same.

Using both hemispheres simultaneously becomes more likely. Some parts shrink.
Alzheimer disease accounts for what percentage of dementia worldwide?
50 percent
The leading cause of death for men and women is:
cardiovascular disease.
Which senses become less sharp in late adulthood?
hearing and vision
Dorothy has begun keeping a detailed journal that includes stories of her childhood to early adulthood. She plans to pass her journal down to her grandchildren as a family history and so that they can know her in a more intimate way. Her journal writing is a form of:
life review.
Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago. The quality of their marriage should:
improve since they have more time to spend together.
Regarding remarriage in the United States:
men are more likely to remarry than are women.
Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago. The quality of their marriage should:
improve since they have more time to spend together.
Regarding remarriage in the United States:
men are more likely to remarry than are women.
According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results in:
stagnation and personal impoverishment.
Divorce is most likely to occur within the first ______ years of a wedding.
5
The combined total amount of stress and disease with which an individual must cope is known as:
allostatic load.
After the children are grown, most married couples:
have adequate time for their relationship.
Some people refer to a period of unusual anxiety, reexamination, and transformation during middle adulthood as a(n):
midlife crisis.
Statistics maintained by the U.S. Census Bureau on the number of homosexual couples is likely a(n):
undercount.
Married teenagers are likely to become ______ and ______.
depressed; aggressive
A disease that can produce dementia is:
AIDS
Maximum life span is defined as the:
upper limit to which members of a species can live.
Don is a retired successful businessman who, for the first time in his life, planted a large vegetable garden. His hard work produced many vegetables that he shared with family and friends. His primary purpose for planting his garden was:
a heightened appreciation of nature.
Dementia is:
the pathological loss of brain functioning.
The most common cause of dementia is:
Alzheimer disease.
People who live to see their 100th birthday are referred to as:
centenarians.
Abraham Maslow maintained that older adults are:
more likely than younger people to reach self-actualization.
If you want to extend your life by slowing down the aging process, the most promising method is:
calorie restriction.
The primary reason older people receive less input into their brains is that:
their senses decline, reducing the sensory input.
Primary aging refers to age-related changes that:
inevitably take place as time goes by.
What is Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning?
is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge
Crystallized intelligence
the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience
Senescence
biological aging is the change in the biology of an organism as it ages after its maturity.
What does the term “menarche” refer to?
d. A girl’s first menstrual period.
At adolescence, the gonads increase the production of sex hormones: ___________ in girls and __________ in boys.
d. estradiol; testosterone
In what way does weight affect puberty?
b. Excess weight results in earlier puberty.
In what way does stress affect puberty?
c. Stress increases the hormones that start puberty.
Early-maturing girls:
d. tend to have lower self-esteem than late-maturing girls.
A person’s idea of how his or her body looks is called:
b. body image.
Which of the following is among the body changes in adolescence that increase physical endurance?
a. The heart doubles in size.
Which of the following sexually transmitted infections is a sexually active teenager most likely to have?
b. genital herpes
Child sexual abuse:
b. is most common just after puberty.
Which statement concerning a teenager’s brain growth is true?
a. The limbic system matures before the prefrontal cortex does.
Why do emotions rule behavior for many teens?
The complexities of emotional restraint are beyond them. The amygdala matures before the prefrontal cortex does. The onset of puberty is earlier.
What is adolescent egocentrism?
a. The thinking that leads young people to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others.
Teens are likely to experiment with drugs and have unprotected sex because of:
c. the invincibility fable.
Julie is obsessed with how others will react to her behavior and appearance. It takes her several hours to dress in the morning as she considers what both her friends and her enemies will think of her. Julie’s behavior reflects the power of:
c. the imaginary audience.
Which of the following statements about hypothetical-deductive thought is true?
b. Hypothetical-deductive thought allows one to consider propositions that may or may not reflect reality.
Hypothetical thought:
a. may complicate reflection about serious issues.
The thought process that involves using one or more specific experiences or facts to reach a general conclusion is called:
b. deductive reasoning.
The “low ebb” of learning occurs in:
a. middle school.
Since the U.S. trend toward more high-stakes testing began:
b. other nations have moved away from relying on high-stakes testing.
What are some ways of encouraging adolescents to engage in their education?
b. Encourage extracurricular activities.
The current average age of menarche among well-nourished girls is:
b. 12 years, 6 months.
During adolescence, testosterone in boys rises about _________ times the prepubescent level.
20
Researchers believe that hormones and environmental chemicals in the food supply:
a. have led to both weight gain and early maturation.
Living in a stressful environment has been found to:
d. result in earlier puberty.
Early-maturing boys:
c. are more likely to be aggressive and abuse alcohol.
Which of the following is a symptom of anorexia nervosa as defined by the American Psychiatric Association?
a. A refusal to maintain a body weight that is at least 85 percent of normal for age and height.
During adolescence, the lungs will _________ in weight and the heart will ___________ in size.
c. triple; double
Teenage girls are more susceptible to sexually transmitted infections than mature women are because:
c. fully developed women have some natural biological defenses against STIs.
Which age group has the highest rate of substantiated sexual abuse?
c. 12–15
What function does the prefrontal cortex serve?
b. It is responsible for planning ahead and emotional regulation.
According to the text, what explains why many teenagers are thrill seekers?
a. The prefrontal cortex is not yet mature.
Which characteristic of adolescent thought is demonstrated when a teen fails to recognize that others may neither care about nor share her opinions?
d. adolescent egocentrism
Which of the following best explains why teens engage in behavior that they know puts them at risk?
c. the invincibility fable
What-if propositions require:
c. hypothetical thought.
The most prominent change in adolescent thought is the ability to:
b. think of possibility.
Concluding that a four-legged furry animal that wags its tail when it is happy and that likes to fetch sticks is a dog would be an example of:
b. inductive reasoning.
Many middle school students sacrifice ______________ rather than risk social exclusion.
c. academic achievement
Most recent Internet studies have demonstrated that adolescents’ online communication _________ social connectedness and/or well-being.
d. stimulates
During adolescence, psychosocial development is primarily a search to answer the question:
a. “Who am I?”
During the fifth stage of psychosocial development, an adolescent who is confused as to which of the many possible roles to adopt is said to be:
c. experiencing a crisis of identity versus role confusion.
It is typical for an adolescent experiencing __________ to sleep too much, care little about school, and be indifferent to parental criticism.
d. identity diffusion
In achieving full identity, an adolescent should understand his or her goals and values regarding:
religion, sex, politics, ethnicity and vocation
What is a gender role?
a. A pattern of behavior that the culture of society considers appropriate for only men or only women.
Today, vocational identity is postponed because:
d. many vocations require specialized skills that take years to attain.
A key developmental asset that predicts positive youth outcomes is having:
a. supportive non-parent adult relationships.
Adolescents are said to have closeness with family when:
d. there is open communication, support, emotional connectedness, and parental control.
Applied to adolescent peer relationships, “facilitation” refers to the way that peers:
c. encourage each other to do things that none would do on his or her own.
A factor that pushes immigrant teens toward extremes of either obedience or rebellion is:
b. if their parents seek to maintain traditional practices that differ markedly from those of teenage culture.
According to Dunphy, the third event in the sequence of male-female relationships is:
c. small mixed-sex groups.
Which of the following statements concerning homosexual youth is TRUE?
d. Ten percent of heterosexual adults report having had same-sex encounters when they were an adolescent.
The best sex-education programs are those that:
b. start before high school, require parent-child communication, focus on behavior, and last for years.
Which of the following is not one of the top causes of adolescent death?
a. disease
Serious depression among adolescents is:
a. more common in females than in males.
Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning adolescent suicide?
d. Suicidal ideation is common among adolescents, but completed suicides are not.
Most longitudinal studies on adolescent destructiveness conclude that:
b. increased anger at puberty is normal and is usually expressed in acceptable ways.
The best predictor of later drug abuse is:
a. drug use before age 18.
Which psychoactive drug used during adolescence inhibits growth and may result in the adolescent becoming a shorter and heavier adult?
d. tobacco
Adolescents who regularly smoke marijuana are more likely to:
drop out of school. become teenage parents. be unemployed.
The text indicates that globalization, technology, and medicine has:
a. resulted in a delay in the assumption of adult roles.
Approximately what percentage of young adults in the United States rate their health as good, very good, or excellent?
96
The number of births per woman that would be required to maintain the world’s population is a replacement rate of:
c. 2.1
In the United States, what percentage of people in their mid-20s believe that premarital sex “is not wrong at all”?
53
Which of the following is an example of edgework?
a. being a bicycle messenger
The leading causes of death from age 15-35 in all but one nation is:
a. homicide and suicide.
According to the text, “complex, critical, and relativizing thinking emerges only”:
b. in the 20s.
The category of self-description that is fragmented and overwhelmed by emotions or problems is called:
a. dysregulated.
The category of self description that includes valuing openness and independence is:
c. complex.
Tim, a college freshman, is most likely to have the goal of:
a. having personal and financial success.
Research on personality reveals that it is:
genetically influenced environmentally influenced not fixed; plasticity is evident
In general, emerging adults experience:
d. increasing self-esteem.
Worldwide, adults are more likely to have a mental illness during emerging adulthood years because:
d. interpersonal or financial stress interacts with a preexisting vulnerability.
What percentage of emerging adults in the United States have an anxiety disorder?
25
About ____ percent of all adults experience at least one episode of schizophrenia.
1
During this stage, Erikson believed that adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self-sacrificing commitment.
d. intimacy versus isolation
According to Sternberg, __________ is characterized by excitement and ecstasy.
passion
What one organ system shows significant effects of aging?
d. sexual-reproductive
Senescence:
c. is a gradual physical decline that occurs with age.
Which of the following increases gradually beginning in our 20s?
a. nearsightedness
At what age do 50 percent of both men and women report being “comfortable monogamists”?
c. 40–44
Physicians recommend that would-be mothers try to conceive before age:
45
What is the most common form of assisted reproductive technology?
IVF
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been shown to:
c. reduce osteoporosis.
Sperm production typically:
d. continues indefinitely.
Drug abuse decreases over adulthood primarily because of:
c. maturity and marriage.
What percentage of adults in the United States are overweight?
b. 66
What term refers to the number of deaths each year per 1,000 members of a particular population?
a. mortality
The measure of health that is most costly to society is:
a. disability.
Which of the following is NOT a reason that, at age 80, women outnumber men two to one?
d. Old men die at a higher rate than do old women.
How did Spearman measure general intelligence (g)?
c. He inferred g from tests of various abilities, such as vocabulary, memory, and reasoning.
The trend toward increasing average IQ is called:
c. the Flynn effect.
What were the primary mental abilities studied by Schaie?
d. verbal meaning, word fluency, number ability, inductive reasoning, spatial orientation
Which of the following statements about IQ is true?
d. In adulthood, chronological age, culture, context, and personal choices are all equally influential in determining IQ.
What form of basic intelligence enables us to adapt and learn new things?
fluid
Which of the following forms of intelligence is needed to manage our daily lives?
practical
When is practical intelligence usually valued?
d. when the demands of daily life are omnipresent
In which of Erikson’s stages do adults seek a reciprocal connection with another human being?
b. intimacy vs. isolation
Which therapist developed the hierarchy of needs?
Maslow
According to Maslow adults must achieve _________ before moving on to __________.
d. love; esteem
The idea that stages of life and the behaviors accompanying them are set by social standards represents:
c. the social clock.
Extensive research on personality supports the general belief that:
a. there are five basic clusters of personality traits.
A midlife crisis could be defined as a:
c. time for radical reexamination. b. sudden transformation. a. period of unusual anxiety.
James, a computer salesman, coaches youth soccer, coordinates a Neighborhood Watch group, and cycles with his bike club. His personality clusters high in:
c. extroversion.
Gilbert found that personality trumps experience. People who win a million dollars are overjoyed and:
c. revert to their previous level of happiness.
In the U.S., The Big Five scores differ in states. New Yorkers are highest in __________ while North Dakotans are highest in ___________.
a. openness; extroversion.
By age 42 women become ________ aggressive and men become _________ conforming.
d. more; more
The most supportive members of a social convoy are:
friends
The term “familism” means:
b. family members often disagree.
International research indicates that married people have:
d. slightly higher levels of happiness than single persons have.
When comparing homosexual partners with heterosexual partners, research indicates that:
a. both types of relationships experience the same types of advantages and disadvantages.
Which of these developed countries has the highest divorce rate?
Germany
Dr. Sullivan, a 79-year-old psychology professor, has been teaching at a college for more than 40 years. He vows that he is not ready to retire and that he loves teaching and helping prepare young adults for their careers. He is demonstrating:
c. generativity through employment.
Of the following family members, who is most likely the family kinkeeper?
a. Gloria, age 33, who is married with two children and frequently calls her siblings and regularly plans holiday family events
Which parenting relationship has difficulty in developing strong attachment bonds with children?
c. stepparents
The idea that people compare themselves to others in their group and are satisfied if they are no worse off is:
b. relative deprivation.
Anthony values most receiving a good salary and benefits at his job while Henry values most his workmanship pride and employee relationships. Most likely, Anthony is ______; and Henry is _________.
a. younger; older
Ageism or prejudice about late adulthood is common among people:
a. of all ages.
Stereotype threat is:
b. anxiety that other people are prejudiced.
The ___________ are dependent and at risk for illness and injury.
c. oldest-old
By the year 2050, it is estimated that people over age 65 will make up _______ of the world’s population.
d. 16 percent
Fewer births and increased survival rates are changing the shape of the population from a pyramid to a(n):
square
The compression of morbidity is:
d. a goal to achieve.
The universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to all living creatures as they grow older is referred to as:
a. primary aging.
Seventy-five-year-old Harvey needs adequate amounts of ______ in his diet to ensure that his memory is working as well as it can.
a. vitamin A
What increases the risk of every illness?
d. lack of movement
It has been demonstrated that calorie restriction:
c. may slow aging.
Late-adult cognition appears to decline because the senses:
c. miss some of the sensory stimulation.
The conscious processing and temporary storage of information best describes the:
c. working memory.
Problems with laboratory research on cognition of the elderly include all of the following EXCEPT:
b. using a familiar setting and memory cues.
Older adults are less adept at:
a. detecting subtle facial indicators of fear and shame. b. detecting liars. c. gaze following.
___________ is a better predictor of cognition than __________ is.
a. Health; age
Research on late-adulthood cognitive decline has led scientists:
d. to differ on exactly when cognition declines.
An aspect of impaired control processes is evidenced when an older adult:
c. relies, when making decisions, on preconceived ideas rather than considering new evidence.
Relying on prior knowledge and rules of thumb in decision making is called:
b. a top-down strategy.
Alzheimer disease is characterized by:
c. the proliferation of plaques and tangles in the cerebral cortex.
Blockage of a blood vessel in the brain that keeps sufficient oxygen from getting into the brain tissue is a result of:
d. transient ischemic attacks.