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32 Cards in this Set

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Transistor
electronics component of silicon that oepns or closes a circuit. 1 for electricity and 0 for none
integrated circuit
also called chips used to store bits and bytes. made up of multiple transistors
CPR
group of integrated cicuits. all CPU circuits make one microprocessor
Motherboard
primary circuit board
Buses
pathways
Processing
act of manipulating data in a manner that is defined by programmed instructions...IT PRocesses instructions
Instruction set
finite number if instructions sent to the processor
Three components of CPU
1. ALU (instructions and math)
2. Control Unit(sequentially access programs
3.Registers(hold bytes being processed)
RAM
volatile/temporary memory that carries instructions for processor to access.
system bus
consists of electronic pathways between CPU and RAM. typically connects to a chipset that ties several bus systems
Two phases of ececution of instruction that make up machine cycle
1.Instruction phase
2.execution phase
Instruction phase
1.Fetch instruction(instructions accessed from RAM by control unit
2. Decode instruction :Control Unit(decoded info, moved from RAM to CPU)
eXECUTION Phase
3.Execute instructions (ALU)
4.Store results
system clock
clock speed of electronic pulses to synchronize processing activities...in MHz and GHz..faster clocks with larger cooling systems
System clocks
not important how fast clock speed but how well it does with processor in each tick
Cache memory
mhigh-speed memory that can be accessed faster than RAM. it make sintelligent guesses three levls L1, L2, L3...LARGER cache mean faster processing
Wordlength
number of bits CPU can process at once e.g Intel Pentium with 32 or 64 bits
MIPS
Millions of instruction per second true measere of processors performance
FLOPS
Floating point ops per sec...more precise
TYPES OF MULTI-PROCESSING
1.Coprocessing
2.ParalleL
3.Massively parallel processing (MPP)
Coprocessing
special purpose to speed up specific instructions while CPU works on somthing else
Parallel Proecssing
speeds processing by linking several processots to operate at same time. challenge not in connecting processors but have them work effectively as a unified set
Grid computing/clustering
PROCESSORS linked over a network
MPP
involves thousands of processors operating together e.g NASA Columbia
Moore's Law
when transistor densities increase so does the speed of the processor. transistor densitities double processor speeds will also double every 18 months
SIMM
Single in line emory module
ppm
pages printed per minute
dpi
dot per inch for resolution of a printer
Impact printer
use impact to transfer ink
Dot-matrix
use impactas well but capable of printing characters
Plotters
printers for large graphic designs
Firewire
competes with USB for connecting devices to computers