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151 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Business Model
Describes how a company produces, delivers, and sells a product or service to create wealth.
Information Technology
Consists of all the hardware and software that a firm needs to use in order to achieve its business objectives.
Information Systems
A set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store, and distribute information to support decision making, coordinating, and control in an organization.
Information
Data that has been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings.
Data
Are streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use.
Input
Captures or collects raw data from within the organization or from its external environment.
Processing
Converts this raw input into a meaningful form.
Output
Transfers the processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used.
Feedback
Which is the output that is returned to appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct the input stage.
Information Systems Literacy
The broader understanding of information systems, which encompasses an understanding of the people and the organizational dimensions of systems as well as the technical dimensions of systems.
Computer Literacy
Focuses primarily on the knowledge of information technology.
Management Information Systems
Tries to achieve this broader information systems literacy. MIS deals with behavioral issues as well technical issues surrounding the development, use, and impact of IS used by managers and employees.
Business Processes
Logically related tasks and behaviors for accomplishing work.
Culture
Fundamental set of assumptions, values, and ways of doing things, that has been accepted by most of its members.
Computer Hardware
Is the physical equipment used for input, processing, and output activities in an information system. (i.e. computers, storage devices, input/output devices)
Computer Software
Consists of detailed, pre-programmed instructions that control and coordinate the computer hardware components in an information system.
Data management technology
Consists of the software governing the organization of data on physical storage media.
Networking & Telecommunications Technology
Consisting of both physical devices and software, links the various pieces of hardware and transfers data from one physical location to another.
Network
Links two or more computers to share data or resources, such as a printer.
Internet
Is a global network of networks that uses universal standards to connect millions of different networks worldwide.
Intranet
Internal corporate networks based on Internet technology.
Extranets
Private intranets extended to authorized users outside the organization, as well as firms use such networks to coordinate their activities with other firms for making purchases and performing other organizational work.
World Wide Web
Is a service provided by the Internet that uses universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information in a page format on the Internet.
Information Technology Infrastructure
Represents the resources that can be shared throughout the organization. IT infrastructure provides the foundation, or platform, on which the firm can build its specific information systems.
Change Management
Refers to the many techniques used to bring about successful change in a business.
Critical Thinking
Can be defined as the sustained suspension of judgement with an awareness of multiple perspectives and alternatives.
Four Elements of Critical Thinking
-Maintaining doubt and suspending judgement.
-Being aware of different perspectives.
-Testing alternatives and letting experience guide.
-Being aware of organizational and personal limitations.
Outsourcing & Offshoring
Outsourcing to domestic U.S. firms and offshore outsourcing to low-wage countries.
Senior Management
Makes long-range strategic decisions about products and services as well as ensures financial performance of the firm.
Middle Management
Carries out the programs and plans of senior management.
Operational Management
Is responsible for monitoring the daily activities of the business.
Knowledge Workers
Engineers, scientists, or architects, design products or services and create new knowledge for the firm.
Data Workers
Secretaries or clerks, assist with administrative work at all levels of the firm.
Production or Service Workers
Actually produce the product and deliver the service.
Transaction Processing Systems
A computerized system that performs and records the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct business, such as a sales order entry, hotel reservations, payroll, employee record keeping, and shipping.
Business Intelligence
Is a contemporary term for data and software tools for organizing, analyzing, and providing access to data to help managers and other enterprise users make more informed decisions.
Management Information Systems (MIS)
MIS provides middle managers with reports on the organization's current performance. Tis information is used to monitor and control the business and predict future performance.
Decision-support systems (DSS)
Focuses on problems that are unique and rapidly changing, for which the procedure for arriving at a solution may not be fully predefined in advance.
Executive support systems (ESS)
Help senior management make these decisions. They address non-routine decisions requiring judgement, evaluation, and insight because there is no agreed-on procedure for arriving at a solution.
Portal
Information that is delivered to senior executives, which uses a web interface to present integrated personalized business content.
Digital Dashboard
Information that is displayed on a single screen featuring graphs and charts of key performance indicators for managing a company.
Enterprise Applications
Are systems that span functional areas, focus on executing & coordinating business processes across the business firm, & include all levels of management. Helps a firm stay flexible & productive.
Enterprise System (aka Enterprise Resource Planning Systems or ERP systems)
Used to integrate business processes in manufacturing and production, finance and accounting, sales and marketing, and HR into a single software system.
Supply Chain Management (SCM) Systems
Used to help manage relationships with their suppliers. This system shares pertinent information about orders, inventory levels, and production to suppliers, distributors, and purchasing firms.
Interorganizational System
They automate the flow of information across organizational boundaries, such as SCM systems.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Systems
Used to help manage relationships with their customers. CRM systems provide information to coordinate all of the business processes that deal with customers in sales, marketing, & service to optimize revenue, customer satisfaction, & customer retention.
Knowledge Management Systems (KMS)
Enable organizations to better manage processes for capturing & applying knowledge and experience in the firm, & make it available wherever & whenever it is needed to improve processes & management decisions.
E-business
Refers to the use of digital technology and the Internet to execute the major business processes in the enterprise. E-business include activities for internal management of the firm & for coordination with suppliers and other business partners.
E-commerce
A part of e-business that deals with the buying & selling of goods & services over the Internet. Also encompasses activities supporting those market transactions, such as advertising, marketing, customer support, security, delivery, & payment.
E-government
Refers to the application of the Internet and networking technologies to digitally enable government and public sector agencies' relationships with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.
Telepresence
An integrated audio and visual environment which allows a person to give the appearance of being present at a location other than his or her true physical location.
Internet based collaboration environments
Virtual meeting systems, Google apps, MS sharepoint, & Lotus notes.
Information Systems Department
Is the formal organizational unit responsible for information technology services.
Programmers
Are highly trained technical specialists who write the software instructions for computers.
Systems Analysts
Constitute the principle liaisons between the IS groups and the rest of organization.
IS managers
Are leaders of teams of programmers and analysts, project managers, physical facility managers, telecommunications managers, or database specialists.
Chief Security Officer (CSO)
Is in charge of IS security for the firm and is responsible for enforcing the firm's IS policy.
Chief Privacy Officer (CPO)
Is responsible for ensuring that the company complies with existing data privacy laws.
Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO)
Is responsible for the firm's knowledge management program. Designs programs and systems to find new sources of knowledge or to make better use of existing knowledge in the business processes.
End Users
Are representatives of departments outside of the IS group for whom applications are developed.
Centralized Systems
Where system development and operation occur totally at the domestic home base. Used by domestic exporter.
Duplicated Systems
Where development occurs at the home base but operations are handed over to autonomous units in foreign locations. Used by franchiser.
Decentralized Systems
Where each foreign unit designs its own unique solutions and systems. Used by domestic exporter, multinationals, & franchisers.
Networked Systems
Where system development and operations occur in an integrated and coordinated fashion across all units. Used by multinationals & transnationals.
Business Process Management
-Identify processes for change.
-Analyze existing processes.
-Design the new process.
-Implement the new process.
-Continuous measurement.
Competitive Forces Model
The strategic position of the firm and its strategies are determined not only by competition with its traditional direct competitors but also by four forces in the industry's environment: new market entrants, substitute products, customers, and suppliers.
Efficient Customer Response System
Directly links consumer behavior to distribution and production and supply chains.
Mass Customization
The ability to offer individually tailored products or services using the same production resources as mass production.
Switching Costs
The cost of switching from one product or service to a competitor.
Value Chain Model
Highlights specific activities in the business where competitive strategies can best be applied and where IS are most likely to have a strategic impact.
Primary Activities
Are most directly related to the production and distribution of the firm's products and services, which create value for the customer.
Support Activities
Make the delivery of the primary activities possible and consist of organization infrastructure (administration and management), HR (recruiting, hiring, training), technology (improving products and the production process), and procurement (purchasing input).
Benchmarking
Involves comparing efficiency and effectiveness of your business processes against strict standards and then measuring performance against those standards.
Best Practices
Are usually identified by consulting companies, research organizations, government agencies, and industry associations as the most successful solutions or problem-solving methods for consistently and effectively achieving a business objective.
Value Web
A collection of independent firms that use IT to coordinate their value chains to produce a product or service for a market collectively.
Core Competency
Is an activity for which a firm is a world-class leader.
Network Economics
Similar to traditional economics where the economics of factories or agriculture experience diminishing returns in the production process. The more any given resource is applied to production, the lower the marginal gain in output, until a point is reached where the additional inputs produce no additional outputs.
Virtual Company
Uses networks to link people, assets, and ideas, enabling it to ally with other companies to create and distribute products and services without being limited by traditional organizational boundaries or physical locations.
Disruptive Technologies
Are substitute products that perform as well or better than anything currently produced. (i.e. apple replacing a portable CD player)
Domestic Exporter
Strategy is characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home country of origin. Production, finance/accounting, sales/marketing, HR, and strategic management are set up to optimize resources in the home country.
Multinational Strategy
A strategy that concentrates financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing production, sales, and marketing operations to units in other countries.
Franchisers
Have a product created, designed, financed, and initially produced in the home country but rely heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing and HR.
Transnational Strategy
Nearly all the value-adding activities are managed from a global perspective without reference to national borders, optimizing sources of supply and demand wherever they appear and taking advantage of local competitive advantages.
Quality
Can be defined from both producer and customer perspectives. For producers, quality signifies conformance to specifications or the absence of variation from those specifications. Customers are concerned with quality, durability, safety, ease of use, and installation. In addition, customers are concerned with quality of service which includes accuracy and truthfulness.
Total Quality Management
Makes quality the responsibility of all people and functions within an organization. All employees are expected to contribute to the overall improvement of quality.
Six Sgima
Is a specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities.
Cycle Time
Refers to the total elapsed time from the beginning of a process to its end.
Computer-aided design
Automates the creation and revision of designs, using computers and sophisticated graphics software.
Business Process Management
Is an approach to business which aims to continuously improve business processes.
Business Process Management Steps
-Identify processes for change
-Analyze existing processes
-Design the new processes
-Implement the new process
-Continuous measurement
Business Process Re-engineering
When a business process is changed in a radical way. (i.e. a physical bookstore redesigning the purchasing process so that it can be carried out online). These types of changes can provide gains in productivity and efficiency.
Data Center
Is a facility housing computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications, storage, security systems, and backup power supplies.
System Software
Manages resources and activities of the computer.
Application Software
Applies the computer to a specific task for an end user, such as processing an order or generating a mailing list.
Data Management Software
Organizes, manages, and processes business data concerned with inventory, customers, and vendors.
Legacy Systems
Are generally older transaction processing systems created for older computers that continue to be used to avoid high costs of replacing or redesigning them.
Workstation
Fits on a desktop PC but has more powerful mathematical and graphics-processing capabilities than a PC.
Server
Specifically optimized to support a computer network, enabling users to share files, software, peripheral devices, or other network resources.
Mainframe
A large capacity, high performance computer that can process large amounts of data very rapidly.
Super Computer
Is a specially designed and more sophisticated computer that is used for tasks requiring rapid and complex calculations with thousands of variables, millions of measurements, and thousands of equations.
Grid Computing
Involves connecting geographically remote computers into a single network to create a "virtual supercomputer" by combining the computational power of all computers on the grid.
Distributed processing
The use of multiple computers linked by a communications network for processing.
Centralized processing
In which all processing is accomplished by one large central computer. (less common)
Client/server computing
A widely used form of distributed processing that splits processing between "clients" and "servers." Both are on the network, but each machine is assigned functions it is best suited to perform.
Client
Is the user point of entry for the required function and is normally a desktop or laptop computer.
Multi-tiered (N-tier) Client/server architectures
Where the work of the entire network is balanced over several different levels of servers, depending on the kind of services being requested.
Web Server
First level of a client/server architecture, serves a web page to a client in response to request for a service. This software is responsible for locating and managing stored web pages.
Application server
Handles the client's requests to access a corporate system (product list or price information). This software handles all application operations between a user and an organization's back-end business systems.
Magnetic Disks
The most widely used secondary storage medium.
Optical Discs
User laser technology to store large quantities of data, including sound and images, in a highly compact form. This includes CD-Rom and DVD's
Magnetic tape
Older storage technology that is used for secondary storage of large quantities of data that are needed rapidly but not instantly.
Storage Area Networks
Connect multiple storage devices on a separate high-speed network dedicated to storage. The SAN creates a large central pool of storage that can be rapidly accessed and shared multiple servers.
Input devices
Gather data and convert them into electronic form for use by the computer.
Output devices
Displays data after they have been processed.
Nanotechnology
Uses individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices that are thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit.
Virtualization
Is the process of presenting a set of computing resources (such as computing power or data storage) so that they can all be accessed in ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographic location.
Cloud Computing
Is a model of computing in which computer processing, storage, software, and other services are provided as a pool of virtualized resources over a network, primarily the Internet.
Characteristics of cloud computing
-On-demand self-service
-Ubiquitous network access
-Location independent resource pooling
-Rapid elasticity
-Measured service
Three types of cloud computing services
-Cloud infrastructure as a service
-Cloud platform as a service
-Cloud software as a service
Public Cloud
Is owned and maintained by a cloud servic.e provider
Private Cloud
Is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on or off premise.
On-demand Computing
The act of purchasing computing services from remote providers and pay only for the amount of computing power they actually use or are billed on a monthly or annual subscription basis.
Green Computing (or green It)
Refers to practices and technologies for designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated devices such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems to minimize impact on the environment.
Multicore processor
An integrated circuit to which two or more processor cores have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks.
Automatic Computing
An industry wide effort to develop systems that can configure themselves, optimize and tune themselves, heal themselves when broken, and protect themselves from outside intruders and self-destruction.
Operating system
The system software that manages and controls the computer's activities.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Application software, which makes extensive use of icons, buttons, bars, and boxes to perform tasks.
Multitouch Interface
Allows user to use one or fingers to perform special gestures to manipulate lists or objects on a screen without using a mouse or a keyboard.
Mobile Operating Systems
-Chrome OS: lightweight OS for cloud computing
-Android: Open source OS for mobile devices.
UNIX
Is a multiuser, multitasking OS developed by Bell Laboratories to connect various machines together and is highly supportive of communications and networking. Often used on workstations and servers, and provides the reliability and scalibility for running large systems on high-end servers.
Linux
A UNIX like OS that can be downloaded from the Internet. Linux is an open source software that plays a major role in the back office, running web servers and local area networks.
Open Source Software
Which provides all computers free access to its program code. Modifications and improvements are done by individuals. Open source software is generally not restricted to any specific OS or hardware technology, although most is based on Linux or UNIX.
Application Programing Languages
-C: a powerful & efficient language developed that combines machine portability with tight control and efficient use of computer resources.

-C++ is a newer version of C that has all the capabilities of C plus additional features for working with software objects.

-Visual Basic: Widely used visual programming tool and environment for creating applications that run on MS Windows OS.

-Visual Programming Language: Allows users to manipulate graphic or iconic elements to create programs.
Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL)
Developed for processing large data files with alphanumeric characters (mixed alphabetic and numeric data) and for business reporting. Typically found in large legacy business systems.
Fourth-Generation Languages
Consists of a variety of software tools that enable end users to develop software applications with minimal or no technical assistance or that enhance professional programmers' productivity. Tend to be non-procedural than conventional programming languages.
Query Languages
Are software tools that provide immediate online answers to requests for information that are not predefined. Queries are oftern tied to data management software and database systems.
Software Package
Is a prewritten, precoded, commercially available set of programs that eliminates the need for individuals or organizations to write their own software programs for certain functions.
Java
Is an operating systems-independent,processor-independent, object-oriented programming language that has become a leading interactive programming environment for the web.
Hypertext markup language (HTML)
Is a page description language for specifying how text, graphics, video, and sound are place on a web page and for creating dynamic links to other web pages and objects.
HTML5
Evolution of HTML technology, which makes it possible to embed images, audio, video, and other elements directly into a document without processor-intensive add-ons. HTML5 will also make it easier for web pages to function across different display devices, including mobile devices as well as desktops, and it will support the storage of data offline for apps that run over the web.
Web Services
Refer to a set of loosely coupled software components that exchange information with each other using universal web communication standards and languages.
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
The foundation technology for Web services that can perform presentation, communication, and storage of data. More powerful and flexible markup language than HTML.
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)
Is a set of self-oriented services that communicate with each other to create a working software application. Business tasks are accomplished by executing a series of these services.
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Services for delivering and providing access to software remotely as a web-based service.
Mash-ups
Where individual users and entire companies mix and match software components to create their own customized applications.
Capacity planning
Is the process of predicting when a computer hardware system becomes saturated. It considers such factors such as maximum number of users that the system can accommodate, the impact of existing and future software applications, and performance measures, such as minimum response time for processing business transactions.
Scalability
Refers to the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a large number of users without breaking down.
The total cost of ownership (TCO)
Is a model used to analyze the direct and indirect costs to help determine the actual cost of owning a specific technology.
Web Hosting Service
Maintains a large Web server, or series of servers, and provides fee-paying subscribers with space to maintain their Web sites.
Offshore Software Outsourcing
When firms outsource software work outside their national borders.
Service Level Agreement (SLA)
A formal contract between customers and their service providers that defines the specific responsibilities of the service provider and the level of service expected by the customer.