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37 Cards in this Set

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byzantine empire
continuation of roman empire. well situated on the coast for transportation. state religion of orthodox christianity. Justinian I was the emporer- famous for his intolerance of other religions, he closed down jewish and egyptian temples. upon his death, many rivals stepped up because his subjects didn't have much loyalty to the nation.
sassanid empire
era encompassed the length of the late antiquity period. constituted the last iranian empire before the muslim conquest and adoption of islam. ended when yasdegerd III lost a 14 year struggle to drive out the early Islamic caliphate. must of the culture carried on into early muslim era. were zoroastrian, but very tolerant.
zoroastrianism
a monothieistic pre-islamic religion of ancient persia. according to zoroaster, Ahura Mazda created twin spirits, one of light and truth, the other of darkness and untruth.
hagia sophia
known as the church of wisdom. it was one of the great eastern churches of orthodox christianity. its conquest by the ottomans at the fall of constantinople is considered to be one of the great tragedies of christianity.
cestiphon
one of the great cities of mesopotamia and the capital of the sassanid and parthan empires. because of its importance, it was a great objective for the leaders of the roman empire in its eastern wars.
ghassanids
the rival of the lakhmids. arab christian. migrated from yemen in 250. allies of the byzantine empire. successfully opposed the lakhmids. proponents of the arts and poetry.
lakhmids
arab christians. on the west bank of the euprhates. defeated by the ghassanids, who were their enemy.
hijra
the migration of muhammad and his followers to medina in 622. marks the time of the first conversions to islam. also designated as the first year in the muslim calendar by Umar.
ka'aba
the holiest place in islam. the direction muslims face when they pray everyday is in relation to their direction from the kaaba. it is around the kaaba that the ritual circumnabulation is made.
mushaf
the book of the quran. wasn't written down during muhammad's life, but was rather written down in early forms of arabic in later years.
tawhid
islamic concept of monotheism. meaning of unity and oneness of god. meaning that muslims reject the concept of the trinity. there is nothing higher than god.
shahada
the islamic creed meant to bear witness. declaration of the oneness of god and in muhammad as his final prophet. recitation of the shahada is one of the five pillars of islam and is recited daily.
asbab al-nuzul
representing the time and circumstances of the revelation. meant to convey when the quran was revealed to its followers.
amina wadud
the cause of great controversy when in march of 2005, she led a friday prayer for a group of men in new york city. this is a job usually reserved for men.
muhajjirun
accompanied muhammad on hijra. considered to be the most loyal of muhammads followers. left all of their possessions and lives behind to go to medina with him.
ansar
literal meaning of helper. aided muhammad and the muhajjirun after their arrival in medina. converted to islam after his arrival.
shura
arabic word for consultation. the manner in which pre islamic arabian tribes chose their leaders and made major decisions. some muslims say that all decisions must be made by shura. this was how Abu Bakr was declared ruler after muhammad's death.
rashidun caliphs
the rightly guided caliphs. the first four caliphs after muhammads death. included Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali. seen as model leaders by Sunni.
ridda wars
a set of military campaigns against musaylima and the rebellion against Abu Bakr and his taxations. eventually led to the expansion of muslim territories.
misr-amsar
an encampment that was close to civilization, but not inside it. wanted soldiers to retain their toughness and mental attitude. also wanted to retain their arab individuality
kufa
founded by umar about the same time as basra. base for arab armids fighting the sassanids. ali made his headquarters in kufa to plot his battles against muawiya.
fustat
the first islamic capital in egypt. rapidly expanded and openly islam to egyptians. mosque had to be rebuilt and doubled in size.
ghazi
warriors for faith in later battles for islam. depended on their plunder for their livelihood. resided in amsars.
mawali
non arab muslims. non muslims paid a higher tax, so many converted. treated as second and third class citizens in social hierarchy.
ibn al-Zubayr
opposed Umar, part of council that elected Uthman. gave an oath to ali, though he later broke that oath.
abd al-malik
an umayyad caliph. well educated and capable. able to quell the arguing peoples who were in turmoil at the time of his ascension. perhaps the founder of the first islamic state.
Qubbat al-Sakhra
the dome of the rock, where muhammad is believed to have ascended into heaven accompanied by gabriel. also in judaism, where abraham almost sacrificed his son issac.
Haram al-Sharif
the noble sanctuary. the largest mosque in jerusalem. believed in islam to be the mosque of david referred to in the quran.
kharijites
originally accepted ali as king. but lataer rejected him when he accepted an agreement from muawiya to discuss who would be king.
siffin
the battle of siffin occured during the first fitna, and was where ali and muawiya agreed to discuss the new king.
karbala
the battle of karbala was when husayn forces attempted to overthrow the kingdom of yazid. despite having a small army of weak men, husayn still attempted the takeover. his brutal defeat is what is mourned every year by muslims because they believe that his cause was the right one, but no one would go to fight with him.
ismaeli
those who believe that ismael was the right 7th imam despite the fact that he died before the 6th imam thus putting into question the divinity of imamhood.
Muhammad al-Mahdi
according to twelvers, he is the 12th imam who has been hidden by god who will return to earth to become teh savior of mankind.
vizier
a word meaning helper or bearer of burden to designate leaders or holders of office.
mamluk
a slave soldier who converted to islam and served the muslim caliphs. once they were converted, they were trained as soldiers.
Harun al-Rashid
5th abbassid caliph. waged wars against byzantine empires.
Samarra
located in today's region of iraq. capital of the muslim world. home to the al-askari mosque containing the maousoleums of the 10th and 11th imams and the shrine of the hidden imam.