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47 Cards in this Set

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What is the discussion of the practical application of reason centered on one particular method that Islam scholars called_____?
Qiyas
What is the normative example of the Prophet?
the Sunna
Where can the definitive answers to moral and legal question be found?
the Quran and the Sunna
The process of seeking to understand God's law was called?
fiqh
Scholars who engaged in the process of seeking to understand God's law were called what?
fuqaha
What is the sum of all God's rulings on human actions?
Sharia
What are the schools of law termed as?
madhhabs
What were the four major groupings of Sunni legal scholars called?
Hanafi
Maliki
Shafii
Hanabali
Which school of Islamic law was associated with the city of Kufa; allowing higher juristic flexibility through personal judgement;Abu Yusuf and al-Shaybani;Central Asia, Turkey, Cair, Nile Delta in Egypt, and Indian subcontinent
Hanafi(Abu Hanifa)
Which school of Islamic law was associated with acceptance of practice of the people of Medina;Muwatta, attributed to Malik;Mudawwana of Sahnun;North African, Upper Egypty
Maliki(Malik ibn Anas)
Which school of Islamic law was associated with Islamic legal theory, similar to Maliki law; Malaysia, Indonesia, southern Arabia, East Africa, and parts of Upper Egypt
Shafi i
Which school of Islamic law was associated with emphasis on hadith and sometimes considered a grouping of traditionists;Ibn Taymiyya;opposition to taqlid;insistence on going back to Quran and Sunna;official and dominant madhhab in Saudi Arabia
Hanbali
What is the office of judge handing down legal decisions called?
qadi
Recommended acts are called?
mandub
Discouraged acts are called?
makruh
Legal rulings or practical questions?
fatwas
Not an individual but a collective enterprise?
Fiqh
Consensus or community decisively in favor?
Ijma
Muslims could not all be wrong at the same time
Branch of scholarship, the study of the roots of jurisprudence was called?
Usul al-Fiqh
What were the sources and principles of Islamic Law? 9
Quran
Sunna
Qiyas
Ijma
Ijithad
Taqlid
Istihan
Istislah
Darura
Sources or principle of Islamic law that is the basic source for knowledge of divine commands?
Quran
Sources or principle of Islamic law that is the most important material source of law; words and action of Mhmd.; contained and transmitted in hadith literature?
Sunna
Sources or principle of Islamic law that is a means of applying a known command from the two basic sources to a new circumstance by means of anlalogical reasoning;rationale of command is known;similar cases can be judged according to the same rationale
Qiyas
Sources or principle of Islamic law that is the consensus of Muslims on a point of law?
Ijma
Sources or principle of Islamic law that is the toil or effort by a scholar in seeking to discover the intent of the Lawgiver on a given point of law;not a source;reference to the process by which the law is elaborated
Ijithad
sometimes called Qiyas
Jurists qualified to excercise ijtihad?
mujtahid
Sources or principle of Islamic law that is adherence to authoritative precedent;limited to application of established rulings;everyone not a genius?
Taqlid
Sources or principle of Islamic law that is the application of the jurist's personal judgement allowing him to depart from strict application of qiyas;defended by Hanafi;criticized by al-Shafii's
Istihsan
Sources or principle of Islamic law that is the overruling of strict application on the baisis of considerations of the public good?
Istislah
Sources or principle of Islamic law that is the pricnciple of necessity according to an established rule of law; suspended in dire circumstances?
Darura
Sources of Law?
Usul al-Fiqh
What is a method of conveying the Sunna; story that tells how the prophet recacted in certain situations?
Hadith
Chaining of authorities who authenticate hadith;gives series of lengths leading back to eyewitness reports?
Isnad
What was the biographical literature regarding people in Isnad called?
Tabaqat Literature
Persons having knowledge relating to religion?
Ulama (Sing. Alim)
Who was the author of the hadiths?
Al-Bukhari
Pre-Islamic Arabia mediator or judge helping or resolving a dispute?
Hakam
Consultant to judge, renders advice to judge?
Mufti
Rememberance, could involve repeated recitation of prayers; could have dance and music; ritual used by Suffis to detach themselves from material world;becoming more at one with God
dhikr
Suffi order?
tariqa
Leader of tariqa;spiritual guide?
shaikh/pir/murshid
Place to meet people of the order?
Zawiyya
Poor?
faqir
Brother?
Ikhwan
What is the reform for Islam by going back to early Islamic Principles termed?
Salifiyya Movement
Supervision by the Leauge of Nations, ensuring World War and Peace?
Mandate System
Period of administrative reform?
Tanzimat Era