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28 Cards in this Set

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"speech" or "discourse" especially on religious matters. Ilm al-Kalam is dialetical or systematical theology.
the celebrated "rationalist" school of kalam whose name comes from the word meaning "standing aloof"
School of thought differing from Mu'tazilites.

In contrast to the Mutazilite school of Greek-inspired theologians, the Asharite view was that comprehension of unique nature and characteristics of God were beyond human capability. And that, while man had free will, he had no power to create anything. It was an ignorance-based view which did not assume that human reason could discern morality.
an Arabic term roughly meaning "Justice". It is used in the everyday sense of the word: for example, wizeer al-'adl translates to "The Minister of Justice." In Islamic theology, it refers to God's divine justice.
the Islamic concept of monotheism. In Islam, Tawhīd means to assert the unity of Allah. The opposite of Tawhīd is shirk, which means "division" in Arabic, referring to idolatry.
Arabic word for "faith" in Muslim theology, also a common name
"Party" "Faction". The adherents of Ali, who believed Muhammad had chosen him and his descendents as rightful successors and rulers of the Muslims.

the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith after Sunni Islam.
the assasins
Arabic word meaning "leader
refers to a controversial dispensation allowing believers to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion. It is based on Qur'an verses 3:28 and 16:106 as well as hadith, tafsir literature, and juridical commentaries.[2] Sunnis assert that Taqiyya is an act of hypocrisy that serves to conceal the truth. According to them, Taqiyya constitutes a lack of faith and trust in God because the person who conceals his beliefs to spare himself from danger is fearful of humans, when he should be fearful of God only.
one of the major Shia branches. As a madhab, it is close to Sunnism. Prominent in North Yemen.
a major Shi'i branch which takes its name from Isma'il, the sixth imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq's older son who is regarded as the true successor to Ja'far. His position in the succession gives the alternative name of "seven-imam" to the Ismal'ils.

branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shī'a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). The Ismāʿīlī get their name from their acceptance of Ismāʿīl ibn Jaʿfar as the successor-Imām to Jaʿfar aṣ-Ṣādiq, wherein they differ from the Ithnāʿashariyya, who accept Musa al-Kazim, younger brother of Ismail, as their Imam.
Hasan al-Basri
a well-known Arab theologian and scholar of Islam who was born at Medina.
I. `Ali
an early Islamic leader, the first Shi’a Imam, and the fourth Sunni Caliph. He is revered by Sunni Muslims as the last of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs and as a foremost religious authority on the Qur'an and Islamic jurisprudence. Shi'a Muslims consider him the First Imam appointed by Muhammad and the first rightful caliph. Ali was the cousin of Muhammad, and after his marriage to Fatima Zahra, he also became Muhammad's son-in-law.
II. Hasan
It refers to a Hadith which is known, its reporters are famous, the majority of the scholars have accepted it as evidence and the jurists utilize it.
III. Husayn
was the grandson of Muhammad. His mother was Muhammad's daughter Fatima Zahra and his father was Muhammad's cousin, the first Shi’ah Imam, and the fourth Sunni Caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib. Hussain ibn Ali is revered as the third Imam by Shi’ahs.

He was killed in the Battle of Karbala in 680 CE. The anniversary of his death is called Ashura and it is a day of mourning and religious observance for Shi'ah Muslims.
VI. Ja`far al-Sadiq
is considered the sixth Shi'ah Imam by the Ja’fari Shi'ah Muslims and the fifth Shi'a Imam by the Ismaili Shi’ah Muslims. He was a theologian and jurist. His rulings are the basis of the Ja'fari jurisprudence (Shi'a jurisprudence); but he is highly respected by Sunni Muslims for his contributions to their religious scholarship as well. The dispute over who was to succeed him led to the split of the Ismailis from the mainstream Twelver Shi'a and the establishment of the Aga Khan's family line.
XI. Hasan al-Askari
was the eleventh Shi’a Imam. His given name was Hassan ibn Ali ibn Muhammad. Hassan Al-Askari was 22, when his father was killed and the period of his Imamate, following his father's death, was six years. Hassan Al-Askari was 28, when martyred by Al-Mu'tamid (the Abbasid caliph) in the year, 260 Hijra and was buried in Samarra.
Hasan-i Sabah
religious sect of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect.
Ghadir Khumm
a location in Saudi Arabia half-way between Mecca and Medina of 200 miles.

It is historically famous for an event in which Mohammad gave a sermon: Hadith of the pond of Khumm, equally accepted by both Sunni and Shia Muslims, though the latter believe this as an indication of the appointment of Ali as Mohammad's successor.
The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna, or First Muslim civil war, with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28. It was fought between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah I, on the banks of the Euphrates river, in what is now Syria. Following the controversial murder of Uthman, Ali had become Caliph but struggled to be accepted as such throughout the Muslim Empire. Muawiyah, the governor of Syria, denounced Ali, and the two fought at Siffin for the Caliphate, and the right to lead the growing Muslim empire. However, the battle was indecisive, and the two parties agreed to an arbitration, whose result was equally indecisive and controversial. The battle and arbitration served to weaken Ali's position, but did not resolve the tensions that were plaguing the empire. To the Shia, Ali ibn Abi Talib was the first Imam. To Sunni, Ali ibn Abi Talib was the fourth Rashidun Caliph, and Muawiyah the first Caliph of the Ummayyad dynasty. The events surrounding the battle are highly controversial between Sunni and Shia, and serve as part of the split between the two groups[citation needed].
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. On one side were supporters and relatives of Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali; on the other side was a military detachment from the forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph.

Husayn ibn Ali's group consisted of notable members of Muhammad's close relatives, around 73 men, of which some were either very old or very young. Husayn and some members of his group were accompanied by some of the women and children from their families. On the opposite side, the armed forces of Yazid I were led by Umar ibn Sa'ad and contained at least 40,000 men.

The battle field was a desert region located beside one of the branches of the Euphrates River. The battle resulted in the military defeat of Husayn ibn Ali's group, the death of almost all of his men, and the captivity of all women and children.

The Battle of Karbala is one of the most significant battles in the history of Shiite Muslims.

This battle also had significant effects on formation of subsequent revolts against the Umayyad dynasty.[3]

The battle of Husayn ibn Ali is commemorated during an annual 10-day period held every Muharram, culminating on its tenth day, Ashurah.[4][5]
was once a mountain fortress in the arid hills by the Elburz mountains, south of the Caspian Sea, close to Gazor Khan, near Qazvin, about 100 km from present-day Tehran in Iran. Only ruins remain of this fortress today.
Imami (Ithna-`ashari)
Referring to the Twelver Branch of Shiism, which recognizes 12 holy imams.
"Mentioning", "Remembering" God. The central Sufi form of spiritual discipline, with many specific types.
The Sufi way
wahdat al-wujud
"Unity of being" a controversial doctrine of Sufi theosophy because of its subceptibility of monistic and pantheistic interpretation.
al-insan al-kamil
"The Complete Human" or "Perfect Man", a Sufi theosophical concept of an exalted human who rules the universe as God's agent. The Insan Kamil is at the top of the hierarchy of saints.