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33 Cards in this Set

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Dar-al-Islam
-Designates territories in which Islamic law prevails
-These divisions set the stage for what would be the Islamic world (w/ dar al-harb and dar al 'ahd)
Architect of Islamic Law
-Muhammad ibn Idril Shafii (d.820) of Gaza
-Founded Shafii Law, school of jurisprudence.
-Procedural continuity for Islamic Law and its rank in society.
-1 is Qur'an; 2 Sunna (attempted to formalize with creditable chain of Hadith reports); 3 is Ijma (consensus); 4 is ijtihad
-Intellectual efforts were based on reasoning by analogy, Muslims became so by following Islamic law
The Virtuous City
-Al-Farabi (d.950) from Turkic C. Asia, along with Greek rationalism, composed commentaries on Plato and Aristotle.
-Provided a description of the ideally Islamic state, the city would be lead by a morally and intellectually enlightened leader
"Destruction of the Philosophers"
-al-Ghazali (d.1111) of Persia composed the "Incoherence of Philosophers"
-Criticized philosophers who believed that revelation should be understood as a metaphor for deeper truths
-Turned to Sufism and believed that if logic were so capable of brining certainty to metaphgysics, that everyone would agree with them like in Math.
-Turned to Sufism and mysticism after a spiritual crisis.
Idris
-A prophet in Islam, known as Enoch in the Bible. He is Noah's grandpa.
-Crediting with learning useful skills like writing, math etc.
-World had forgotten G-d and was punished with a drought; Idris had prayed for them and it began to rain and ended the drought
Al-Khwarizmi
-Persian Mathemitican (d. 840ish)
-Adapted hindi #s for usage and the sifr (zero)
-Through al-muqabalah, he became the father of algebra and the term algorithim is a loose Latin translation of his name
Toynbee's quote "Greatest work"
-Muqadddimah by Ibn Khaldun (d.1406) of Tunisia
-First work of historiography and a precursor to anthro, soc, econ, poly sci
-In order to understand social and historical developments, we must understand political principles, religious beliefs, living conditions etc.
-Insistence that individual events must be understood in terms of their causes-->critical thinking
Sadaqa
Like Zakat (purification of wealth), means charity/friendship in Arabic. This is going beyond the stipulated amounts and giving more to chaity
Dhikr
Common Sufi practice of rhythmic repetition of the names of G-d or short prayers
Rabi'a
-(d. 801), an Iraqi woman born into poverty and sold to slavery
-Her piety inspired owners to free her, considered a major Sufi figure and early spiritual guide
-Her goal is to love G-d without external motivation, "real work is in the heart", and a proponent of asceticism
Whirling Dervishes
-Also known as the Mevlevis, a Sufi order who incorporate rhythmic spinning into their prayer recitals and stressed ecstatic prayer
-Founder of their tariqa was the poet Rumi (d. 1273) a Persian poet who was known for expressing the desire for spiritual freedom that characterizes Sufi thought
-A desire to be released from selfishness, desire, and greed and be absorbed in divine goodness of beauty
Qadiri
-One of the most popular Sufi orders which was named after al-Gilani (d. 1166)
-Went to Baghdad to study religion, law, philos. He stressed going beyond practice, charity, honesty etc.
-Was robbed but was so honest, they converted on the spot
-Qadiris just advised to follow Islamic legal codes and internalize them through spiritual practice, informal and flexible.
Tariqa
Ways, paths, or orders toward spiritual goals in the Sufi tradition
Al-Azhar
-university in Cairo founded in 971 by the Fatimids
-Oldest university in Western World and most important place of Sunni higher ed. in the world
Ottomans
-Began in 1517, originally Mamluks (slave soldiers)
-Defeated the Byzantines and established Istanbul
-Longest lasting of three post division Islamic empires, caliphate lasted until 1924
Shah Abbas
-Persian, d. 1629
-Best known Safavid leader who moved capial to Isfahan
-Beautified the city with mosques, plazas, and parks
-City has magnificent mosque of Loftallah
al-Wahhab
-bent on reviving the strength of early Islam by wiping out innovations like Sufism and art
-Believed that Muslims who violate the strict rules were declared infidels
-Rallied around teachings of al-Wahhab in 1791, gained dominance in Arabian penninsula but stopped by Mehmed 'Ali
-Neo-Khariji
al-Afghani
-(d.1897) famous Persian anti-imperialist
-Reminded the world that Islam had once prided itself on science and intellectual development
-Stressed importance of sciences in religion stating that they furthered religious spirituality
-'Abduh's teacher
Mahdi
-"G-d's guided one"; this individual will reutrn to earth and lead the world in creating a just society before the end of days
-Descendant of Prophet who hasn't appeared since 9th C., 12th Imam al-Muntazar to the Shii)
Ithna-Ashari
-Most popular branch of Shi'i Islam which is dominant in Iran
-Don't follow the 1st three Caliphs, split with the 7ers
Karbala
-Where Imam Husayn was martyred in 680 by Umayyad troops on the 10th of Muharram
-In modern day Iraq, became a major pilgrimage sit for Shi'is
Muharram
1st month of the Islamic calendar, 10th was when it happened.
-Month becomes a time of mourning to remember the sufferingof the martyrs
Al-Sahawardi
-(d.1191): known as the philosopher of Illumination
-Described existence as light; all individual creatures eminating from the One, G-d
-Goal of spiritual development is to move closer to the Source, losing all individuality
-His order was located in India, sometimes discounted the Shar'iah for the teachings of Sufi leaders
-Appreciated religious diversity which undermined Islam as a distinct religion; criticized by Sirhindi
Din-i Ilahi
Means the "divine religion", a non sectarian monotheism proposed by Akbar the Great (d. 1605), he allowed rise to one of the most historically progressive regimes in Islamic history
Sikhs
16th C. a group that combined the beliefs of Hinuism and Isla
-Use of meditation to rach a higher religious awareness, found their way into Sufi practice
-Sikhism blended Islamic monothism with Sikh monism, religion was founded in Punjab by Nank (d. 1539)
-Taught that there was only one G-d, and that people need to escape the viscious cycle through mediation and virtuous living
-Spread under the tolerant regime of Akbar
Sirhindi
-(d. 1625) leader of the Sufi order Naqshbandis. Appaled by Akbar's tolerance
-Believed that the openness was a danger to Islam, didn't think Shi'is should even be tolerated
-The whole "One" argument just came from an artifical means of chanting and swaying
-One with G-d is heresy, "renewer of the second millenium)
Aurangzeb
-(d.1707), Akbar's great grandson, greatly influenced by Sirhindi
-Promoted a return to Orthodoxy in Islam, killed his brother
-Began a campaign to impose Islam in its traditional form, imposed economic policies, bribes to those who would convert
-Marginalized the Hindus and Sikhs and weakned the social fabric of Mughal India
Sultan
-sulta=power, Turikic tribal leader who rules in accordance with Shariah
Wahdat al-wujud
Akbar's ideal of a unified existence as an altered state of consciousness by artifical means, Sirhindi did not agree.
Ibn Taymiyyah
-(d. 1328) from modern day Turkey
-Many of the problems of the Muslim world resulted in the unification movements
-Only moral unity and a shared commitment to islamic Law
-Warned of excessive Sufism and ruled against fatalism and determinism, wanted a literal Quranic interpretation
Kalam
-Rational articulation of religious principles given in revelation, if kept within the limits of revelation.
-Theology in Arabic
Ashari
(d. 935) Iraq anti-Rationalist scholar
-Stressed the omnipotence of G-d and the importance of divine power over free will
-Rejected the excessive rationalism and became associated with fatalism
Muhammad 'Abduh
-(d.1905) from Cairo, student of al-Afghani, fiercely against European colonialism
-Rejected closing the gates of ijtihad; morality and law must be adapted to modern times
-Knowing what's right comes through G-d's revelation