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67 Cards in this Set

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a clan in the Quraish tribe. The Prophet Muhammad was a member of this clan; his great-grandfather was Hashim, for whom the clan is named.
Abu Bakr
a companion of and the first Muslim ruler after Muhammad (632–634). Sunnis regard him as his rightful successor (caliph) and the first of four righteous Caliphs
“report” “news” A literary form that communicates a sunna of the Prophet Muhammad
chapter of the Qur’an
Abd Allah
the father of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam. He died on a caravan trip between Medina and Mecca.
the first wife of Muhammad
“custom”, “usual procedure” or “way of acting”, especially of Muhammad. The Prophet’s sunna is remembered and transmitted by means of the literary form known as hadith
Arabic language word for "God." It is best known in the West for its use in the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an, which is an Arabic work. However, the word is the common term for God used by all Arabic speakers, whatever their religious persuasion—including Arab Christians and Jews.
the mother of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam
Abd al-Muttalib
He is the grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Ali, the first Shia Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph.
“Recitation” especially the Islamic scripture
Abu Talib
married to Fatima bint Asad and was an uncle of the Prophet Muhammad.
a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In Islamic writings, she is thus often referred to by the title "Mother of the Believers"
the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid Al-Kubra
“emigration” especially of the Prophet and his companions in 622 from Mecca to Medina
an Ethiopian whom was the first African convert to Islam
the dominant tribe of Mecca. It was both the tribe to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged and his chief antagonist in the Quraysh-Muslim Wars
an Arab religious, political and military leader who founded Islam and the Muslim community. He united the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula into a federation of allied tribes with its capital at Medina. According to Islamic traditions, Muhammad began receiving revelations from God from the age of 40, delivered through the angel Gabriel over the last 23 years of his life. The content of these revelations, known as the Qur'an, was memorized and recorded by his followers and compiled into a single Book shortly after his death. The Qur'an, along with the details of Muhammad’s life as recounted by his biographers and his contemporaries, forms the basis of Islamic theology. Within Islam, he is considered the last and most important prophet of God. Muslims do not regard him as the founder of a new religion but as the restorer of the original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and other prophets, whose messages, according to some, had become misinterpreted or corrupted over time.
“striving” or “struggle” especially in the religious path or holy war
He was a companion of Muhammad and became the second Caliph (634 – 644) following the death of Abu Bakr, the first Caliph
the “bearing witness” to God’s unity and Muhammad’s messengerhood. Saying the shahadah once in one’s life, with belief, makes one a Muslim
a Jewish tribe who lived in northern Arabia during the 7th century, at the oasis of Yathrib (now known as Medina). In 627 CE, the tribe was besieged by the Muslims commanded by Muhammad, taken captive and all men, apart from a few who converted to Islam, were beheaded.[1] The Muslims alleged that the Banu Qurayza had agreed to aid their Meccan enemies in their attack on Medina, whom the Muslims had just repulsed in the Battle of the Trench
“pilgrimage” to Mecca during pilgrimage month
a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia. Defined mostly by the Red Sea, it extends from Haql on the Gulf of Aqaba to Jizan. Its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the Islamic holy city of Mecca.
The city is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all able-bodied Muslims who can afford to go, at least once in their lifetime
Madina is the second holiest city of Islam. In 622, Muhammad left Mecca and arrived at Medina
name of a mountain near Medina. It was the site of the second battle between Muslim and Meccan forces. The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625 CE, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca
oasis some 95 miles to the north of Medina (ancient Yathrib), Saudi Arabia. It was inhabited by Jews before the rise of Islam, and was conquered by Mohammad in 628 A.D.
“The Opening” meaning the first sura of the Qur’an. It is a prayer uttered in many contexts
a treaty that took place between the state of Medina and the Quraishi tribe of Mecca in March 628 AD/CE
an early Islamic leader. He is revered by Sunni Muslims as the fourth Rightly Guided Caliph and as a foremost religious authority on the Qur'an and Islamic jurisprudence. Shi'a Muslims consider him the First Imam appointed by Muhammad and the first rightful caliph. Ali was the cousin of Muhammad, and after marriage to Fatima Zahra , he also became Muhammad's son-in-law. He is the first young male to convert to Islam, and the father to the prophet of Islam’s only bloodline.
“helpers”, namely the Medinans who joined with Muhammad and his Meccan Muslim followers in establishing the umma
“emigrants” especially those who accompanied Muhammad on the Hijra
refer to civil war, disagreement and division within Islam and specifically alludes to a time involving trials of faith. The word also implies meanings including schism, secession, upheaval and anarchy.
Islamic jurisprudence
body of Islamic law. The term means "way" or "path"; it is the legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Muslim principles of jurisprudence.
refers to the educated class of Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies.
term referring to the full ablution (ritual washing) required in Islam
a judge ruling in accordance with the sharia, Islamic religious law. Because Islam makes no distinction between religious and secular domains, qadis traditionally have jurisdiction over all legal matters involving Muslims
an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing a legal pronouncement (fatwa)
In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction to a new injunction.
independent judgement, person who uses ijtihad is a mujtahid
term referring ideally to the consensus of the ummah (the community of Muslims, or followers of Islam).
5 pillars of Islam
face Mecca when kneeling to pray
obligatory prayer
fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence
pilgrimage to Mecca
means struggle in the way of God or "striving hard in God's cause" and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam
a mosque
the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin
a pulpit in the mosque where the Imam (leader of prayer) stands to deliver sermons
a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla, i.e. the direction of Kaaba that Muslims should face when praying
act of washing parts of the body using clean water performed by Muslims, as part of the preparation for ritual worship, salah
term referring to the ritual washing required in Islam
refers to the dry ablution in Islam using sand or dust, which may be performed in place of wudu or ghusl, only if no clean water is readily available.
large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, holiest place in Mecca
'Id al-adha
Commemoration of Prophet Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son for God.
Marks the end of the Pilgrimage or Hajj for the millions of Muslims who make the trip to Mecca each year
'Id al-fitr
marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting
dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. It descended from Prophet Muhammad's youngest uncles, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib. It seized power in 750 and shifted the capital from Damascus to Baghdad.
one of four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni islam
one of four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni islam
one of four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni islam
term used to describe a movement of Sunni Islam based on the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703-1792)
personal “opinion”, esp. in legal decisions
member of Hanafiya- Madhhab of Sunni law founded by Abu Hanifa