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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 5 pillars of islam
Prayer, profession of faith, safting during ramadam, hajj, charity
what is prayer
have to pray five times a day facing mecca --> sunrise, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, and bedtime
Profession of faith....
"there is no g-d but Allah, and Muhammad is the prophet"
Fasting during ramadam....
taste hunger to know what it is like to be poor, lasts a month, from sunrise to sunset
Hajj (holy war)
must go during one of five special times to mecca
Charity.... (zakat)
giving of something to those who are less fourtunate, give 2 to 3% of income--> sacrifice some your wealth to needy
prayer leader, religous leader
friday is?
muslim holy day
life before islam spread..
there were nomads, lived in tribes,polytheistic,lots of warfare b/c of desert survival, lots of caravans, elders were the leaders
what was muhammed considered?
Muhammad was convinced after numerous revelations that he was an appointed prophet of God
leader of the tribe
Was there any opposition to his new religion?
people became suspicious of him (mostly wealthy merchants form Mecca)They were upset that b/c they thought they woudl loose the money that people were spending on the shrines when they came to Mecca.
what is a prophet
someone who goes around preaching message from god about their religion
who did muhammed marry?
KhadijaShe was older than him but she was wealthy and this wealth gave him free time that he never had and so as a result he spent a lot of his time in prayer and meditation
what happened whe n muhammed went to meditate?
This is where it is taught that he received his first visions and revelations from God through Angel
what was muhammeds hijrah and his conquest of makkah
The flight is called the hijrah. 622 is the hijrah. Marks year one of the Muslim calendar, he goes to home town gains more followers goes back to mecca and fights them in a jihad and wins
how did the islamic community grow?
muhammed made the medina compact connecting most people within 20 years of his death almost all of the arab pennunsila was muslim
what is the medina compact?
He convinced the Bedouins to give loyalty to the Islamic community rather than their individual tribes Created an Islamic state = allegiance/loyalty to Allah and divine law NOT to tribe He wanted to create a Muslim kafu
HOw did islam triumph?
becuase now everyone one was muslim and lived together under the same rules
what is theocracy?
theo=god cracy=rule
what is mosque?
where muslims go to pray
what is a muezzin?
man who calls someone to pray
HOw did the rightly guided caliphs protect and spread islam?
b/c each caliph started holy wars and conqured new land under their ruling
who were the four rightly guieded caliphs?
1- Abu Bakr, 2- Uman Ibn al-Khattab –assassinate 656, 3-Uthman Ibn-Affan: killed 12 years later, 4-Ali
What were the two groups muslims were spplit into?
one group believed the caliph(successor) should be a descendant of Muhammad(Came to be called Shiite)
The other group said any qualified elected person should be the calipk(Came to be Sunni)
what created the division within Islam
who should be the new caliph after muhammed died
Ummayd Dynasty
Umayyad dynasty (661-750) capital: Damascus Greatest territorial expansion under this groupConquered all of North Africa into Spain tried to invade and conquer France but was stopped by Charles Martel (the Hammer) at the Battle of Tours in 732
Abbasid Dynasty
Abbasid Dynasty (730-1258) capital: Baghdad
This was the height of Islamic cultural civilization
House of Wisdom: a research center and library (built by Ma’mun)
What happens in 1055
In 1055 the Seljuk Turks invade the Abbasid’s—they allow the caliphs to sit on the throne and reign but the Turks rule! They control the “Holy Land” at the time of the crusades- not the Arabs!
Who invades in 1258?
• In 1258 the Mongols attack but they are stopped by the Mamluks in 1260 (another group of Turks)
Who are the lat to take over?
By 1453 the Ottoman Turks takeover and rule North Africa, Arabian Peninsula, and Greater Syria until they are defeated in WW I.
True or False- were woemn subjected to the will og their husbands and she would have complete contorl over their land
HOw were msulim boys educated
at age seven they had to enter masque schools and were required to speak arabic
Name three islamic achievments
1- they were the first to classify animals, minreals, and vegitables
2- they invented algebra, geometry, trigonometry
3-produced 1st maps of eastern hemisphere
Al Razi
Chemist and physicianClassified animal, mineral, or vegetable
Wrote medical encyclopedia describe differences between smallpox and measles
Wrote Canon of Medicine- about all the medical knowledge of the time
Ibn-Al Haytham
Founded optic
Found that the eye sees because the light from the object being seen
Discovered the basic principals of pulmonary circulation
Al- khwarazimi
Father of algebra
al tusi
• Father of trigonometry
how many minarets are on a mosque?
what is astrolabe
Helped in astronomy because it has sunset and sunrise times
Location based on position of the starts
Al Idrisi
greatest cartographer- made 70 maps
made the House of Wisdom
Al Biruni
was a great astronomer and he came up with the idea that earth rotates on its own axis
med Ibn Majid
arab pilot used maps Europeans never saw before to guide Vasco Da Gama
Al Kindi
made philosophies based ib Greek philosophies on mathmatics, theology, physics, and medicne
Ibn SIna
wrote 68 books on theology and logic
Ibn Rushd
philospher, judge in cordoba, gave europe understanding of Aristotle
Moses Maimonides
spanish jew, wrote Mishne torah
Al Tabari
wrote multi-volume hisotry of world in chronicilogicle order
Ibn Khaldun
1st muslim hisotrian to examine history scientifically
True or False- muslims invented first calendar
true or false- arabs did not make place value system
true or false in arab architecture you will see animals
false you won't they were afraid they would be worshipped
name the 3 things astreonomers discovred
observed skies, described eclipses, and found the moon efects the ocean
what is the KA'ABA?
Ka’aba as a sacred place in the Muslim faith- supposedly a comet is in it
nMadina is the...
home city of Muhammed
what is an arabesque?
geometric design of flowers, leaves, and stems used to decorate
Who is fatima
daughter of Muhammed had a son Ali