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90 Cards in this Set

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Year of the Elephant
the name in Islamic history for 570 AD. According to Islamic tradition, it was in this year that Muhammad was born
the Arabic term used for the various traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, from which most historical information about his life and the early period of Islam is derived.
a chapter of the Qur'an.There are 114 surah in the Qur'an
a verse of the Qur'an; Chapters (called surah in Arabic) in the Qur'an are made up of several ayahs, though a sura may vary greatly in length, ranging from 3 to 286 ayahs
the mother of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
is an Arabic term that refers to pre-Islamic non-Jewish or non-Christian Arabian monotheists
Gabriel was the medium through whom God revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad, and that he sent a message to most prophets, if not all, revealing their obligations
the Qur'an is considered a wahi given to Muhammad
The battle of the trench
was a fortnight-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Median numbered 3000. The battle began on March 31, 627
"helpers". Denotes the Medinan citizens that helped Muhammad and the Muhajirun on the arrival to the city after the migration to Medina. They belonged to two main tribes, the Banu Khazraj and the Banu Aws
the traditional ancestor of the Qahtanite peoples either originating in, or claiming genealogical descent from the southern extent of the Arabian Peninsula, especially from Yemen
the traditional ancestor of the Adnani Arabs of northern, central and western Arabia
Marketplace and site of pre-Islamic fairs and poetry contests in Mecca. Location was tied to the pilgrimage season in pre-Islamic times and served as a place where warring tribes could come together peacefully to worship and trade together. A similar practice was adopted by Muslims on the hajj
Cube-shaped “House of God” located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Focal point of the hajj pilgrimage and a world spiritual center that all Muslims face during praye
Clearness, lucidity, manifestation. Ilm al-bayan (the art or science of eloquence) is a branch of Arabic rhetoric dealing with metaphorical language, connecting idea and verbal expression or writing, and interpreting knowledge, and is close to balagha, eloquence. Based on the sanctity of Arabic as the Quranic language, the Quran is sometimes called al-Bayan, the ultimate manifestation
The Sunnah of Muhammad includes his specific words, habits, practices, and silent approvals.[3] It is significant to the spirituality of Islam because it addresses ways of life dealing with friends, family, and government
Report of the words and deeds of Muhammad and other early Muslims; considered an authoritative source of revelation, second only to the Quran (sometimes referred to as sayings of the Prophet). Hadith (pl. ahadith; hadith is used as a singular or a collective term in English) were collected, transmitted, and taught orally for two centuries after Muhammad's death and then began to be collected in written form and codified. They serve as a source of biographical material for Muhammad, contextualization of Quranic revelations, and Islamic law
Chain of authority. Refers to the line of transmitters of a particular saying or doctrine, particularly with respect to hadith
Content or text of a hadith report. Along with its chain of transmitters (isnad), one of the two main parts of a hadith report.
One of six canonical collections of hadith. Sahih Muslim and Sahih al-Bukhari are considered particularly authoritative among Sunni Muslims. Compiled and codified in the ninth century by Muslim ( Ibn al-Hajjaj ). Consists of forty-two books arranged by topic, covering faith, purification, prayer, almsgiving, personal hygiene, fasting, pilgrimage, marriage and divorce, business transactions, inheritance, gifts, bequests, oaths, punishments, judicial decisions, jihad, travel, government, sacrifices, food and drink, clothing, adab, greetings, qualities of Muhammad and his Companions, destiny, dhikr, repentance, knowledge, hell, paradise, Judgment Day, piety, and tafsir
the body of terminology which specify the acceptability of the narrations, hadith, attributed to the Islamic Prophet, Muhammad, as well as other early figures of religious significance.
the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays during Salah. Most mosques contain a niche in a wall that indicates the Qiblah
the migration of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers to the city of Medina in 622
are the early, initial Muslims who followed Muhammad on his Hijra
the diaspora or "Community of the Believers", and thus the whole Muslim world
the dominant tribe of Mecca upon the appearance of the religion of Islam. It was the tribe to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged, as well as the tribe that led the initial opposition to the spread of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula.
fifth in the ascending line from Mohammed, obtained supreme power at Mecca. Father of quyarsh
The Battle of Badr (Arabic: غزوة بدر‎), fought March 17, 624 AD. Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention, or by secular sources to the genius of Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Quran. Most contemporary knowledge of the battle at Badr comes from traditional Islamic accounts, both hadiths and biographies of Muhammad, written decades after the battle.
The Battle of Uhud
was fought on March 19, 625 AD (3 Shawwal 3 AH in the Islamic calendar) at the valley located in front of Mount Uhud, in what is now North-Western Arabia.[1] It occurred between a force from the Muslim community of Medina led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a force led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb from Mecca, the town from which many of the Muslims had previously emigrated (See Hijra)
Treaty of Hudaybiyya is the treaty that took place between the state of Medina and the Quraishi tribe of Mecca in March 628CE
The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Prophet Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (95 miles) from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. According to Muslim sources, the Muslims attacked Jews who had barricaded themselves in a fort.[3]
the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. She was the daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad and Fatimah bint Za'idah and belonged to the clan of Banu Hashim. She is important in Islam as Muhammad's first wife, and one of the "mothers of the believers" (Muhammad's wives).
Abu Bakr
the Prophet Muhammad's father-in-law, one of his companions and the first Muslim ruler after Muhammad's death.[2].
the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661. Sunni Muslims consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun (rightly guided Caliphs), while Shia Muslims regard Ali as the first Imam and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad, all of which are members of the Ahl al-Bayt, the household of Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) into the Sunni and Shia branches
Who is Abu Talib? When did he raise and support Muhammad?
an Arab leader, the head of the clan of Bani Hashim. He was married to Fatima bint Asad and was an uncle of Muhammad. Abu Talib raised and supported Muhammad from when he was eight years old, after his parents and grandfather had died.
was the fourth ruler of the Muslim Empire and one of the four righteous caliphs of Sunni Islam. He was born in about the year 576 and was ruler for 12 years. During his time as ruler he conquered Khurasan and the regions of the west of the Arabian Peninsula.[1] He also united the Muslim upon one uniform version of the Quran.[1] He was well-known for marrying two of Muhammad's daughters, Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum, both at different times. For this, he became known as Dhu al-Nurayn, the "Possessor of Two Lights". He participated in both immigrations, first to Ethiopia and then to Medina
Sahih al-Bukhari
one of the six canonical hadith collections of Sunni Islam. These prophetic traditions, or hadith, were collected by the Persian Muslim scholar Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari (810–870 AD) 194–256 H (about 200 years after Muhammad died) and compiled during his lifetime. Most Muslims view this as their most trusted collection of hadith and it is considered the most authentic book after the Qur'an.[
Year of Deputations
envoys from all tribes in Arabia traveled to Medina and surrendered to Mohammed.
ibn Ishaq
an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer. He collected oral traditions that formed the basis of the first biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
the right to provide water to the pilgrims
is an Islamic concept of "ignorance of divine guidance" or "the state of ignorance of the guidance from God"[1] or "Days of Ignorance"[2] referring to the condition Arabs found themselves in pre-Islamic Arabia, i.e. prior to the revelation of the Qur'an to Muhammad. By extension it means the state of anyone not following Islam and the Qur'an
the title of a group of seven long Arabic poems or qasida (singular qaṣīda, plural qaṣā'id) that have come down from the time before Islam. Each is considered the best work of these pre-Islamic poets. The name means The Suspended Odes or The Hanging Poems, the traditional explanation being that these poems were hung on or in the Ka'ba at Mecca
is a pulpit in the mosque where the imam (leader of prayer) stands to deliver sermons or in the Hussainia where the speaker sits and lectures the congregation
prayer niche in a mosquae that marks the qiblah (direction of Mecca)
a term used in Islamic legal exegesis for seemingly contradictory material within or between the twin bases of Islamic holy law: the Qur'ān and the Prophetic Sunna. Over the last century, there have come to be serious objections to the very idea of Naskh within the Muslim community
Ibin Hisham
edited the biography of Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq. Ibn Ishaq's work is lost and is now only known in the recensions of Ibn Hisham and al-Tabari
Banu Umayya
Banu Umayyah) was the second of the four Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph and the nephew of Hashim (father of banu hashim)
father of Mohammed
a codex or collection of sheets. The Qur’an, which Muslims believe to have been revealed at various times and in various ways during the 23-year period at the end of Muhammad's life, was collected into a codex under the third Caliph, ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān
a reference to itself in Qur'an, also called "Kitabullah", The book of God.
Occasions of Revelation
the historical events surrounding the sending down of an ayah to the Prophet Muhammad. These are contained in traditions narrated by the companions surrounding the Prophet.
recitation of qu'ran
a set of rules which govern how the Qur'an should be read. There are ten schools of recitation.
Hafs text is the more common forom of Qu'ran and used in most areas of the Islamic world.
the science of reciting the quran
an early Arab Muslim historian. Al-Waqidi was a tireless collector of traditions and the author of many books
Jabal-al Nur
a mountain near the city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. It houses the Hira cave where Muhammad is said to have received his first revelation from God (Arabic Allah) through the angel Gabriel
Banu Makhzum
one of the wealthy clans of Quraysh, the Arab tribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Constitution of Madina
also known as the Charter of Medina, was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It constituted a formal agreement between Muhammad and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib (later known as Medina), including Muslims, Jews, and pagans.[1][2] The document was drawn up with the explicit concern of bringing to an end the bitter inter tribal fighting between the clans of the Aws (Aus) and Khazraj within Medina. To this effect it instituted a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, and pagan communities of Medina bringing them within the fold of one community—the Umma
is a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year
Farewell Pilgrimage
Muhammad lead the Farewell pilgramige to Mecca in 632, the last & only hajj pilgrimage Muhammad participated in
a part of the predominantly desert-dwelling Arab ethnic group
Haram Mosque
the largest mosque in the world. Located in the city of Mecca, it surrounds the Kaaba, the place which Muslims worldwide turn towards while offering daily prayers and is Islam's holiest place. The mosque is also known as the Grand Mosque.
Black Stone
a Muslim relic, which according to Islamic tradition dates back to the time of Adam and Eve. It is the eastern cornerstone of the Kaaba, the ancient sacred stone building towards which Muslims pray, in the center of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.[1] The Stone is a dark rock, polished smooth by the hands of millions of pilgrims, that has been broken into a number of fragments cemented into a silver frame in the side of the Kaaba. Although it has often been described as a meteorite, this hypothesis is now regarded as doubtful
also known as the "night prayer" is a voluntary prayer, performed by followers of Islam. It is not one of the five obligatory prayers required of all Muslims, yet still, Islamic prophet, Muhammad is recorded as performing it many times and encouraging his companions to offer it for its many rewards and benefits
customary law
a form of poetry from pre-Islamic Arabia. It typically runs more than 50 lines, and sometimes more than 100. It was later inherited by the Persians, where it became sometimes longer than 100 lines and was used and developed immensely
one of the three chief goddesses of Arabian religion in pre-Islamic times and was worshiped as one of the daughters of Allāh by the pre-Islamic arabs along with Allāt and Manāt.
one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. The pre-Islamic Arabs believed Manāt to be the goddess of fate
Year of the Elephant. Mohammad's birthyear
the archangel Gabriel first appears to Muhammad
Muhammad begins preaching Islam in public
Meccan boycott of Banu Hashim ends
Muhammad made contact with parties outside Mecca, Medina is converted to Islam.
Year one of the Islamic calendar begins, during which the Hijra occurs—Muhammad and his followers emigrate from Mecca to Medina in September
January 1st - Muhammad sets out toward Mecca with the army that will capture it bloodlessly
Year of Deputations - envoys from all tribes in Arabia traveled to Medina and surrender to Mohammad
Muhammad leads the farewell pilgrimage to Mecca and dies in June
Define Qu'ran
the holy book of Islam. The Qur'an is considered by Muslims to be "The Word of Allah (God)". This book is different from other religious texts in that it is believed to be written directly by God, through the prophet Muhammad.
How many parts to the Qu'ran? How many surahs?
There are 30 parts in the Qur'an, which make 114 "suras
History of the compilation of the quran?
Scribing during the life of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). The Revelation scribes wrote down the Quran, according to the order of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), on pieces of cloth, leather, bones, and stones. Its verses were ordered and arranged according to Allah's inspiration. At the beginning, it was not gathered in one book. Some of the Prophet's companions scribed parts and surahs specially for themselves after they had memorized it from the Prophet.
Compiling Quran during the era of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq: Zayd Ibn Thabit gathered the Quran in one book. He was charged to do this by Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, according to an advice from Umar Ibn Al-Khattab. Its resource was the parts written by the Revelation scribes; so he gathered all of it in one book, the Holy Quran.

ompiling Quran during the era of Uthman Ibn Affan: In his reign, the Quran was written from the main copy gathered during the era of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq. It was kept at the residence of Hafsah Bint Umar, (one of the Prophet's wives).
Economic institutions of Arabia in the early 7th century
Arabs engaged in peaceful economic relations with other tribes; weekly markets (suq) such as an annual fair in Mecca called Ukah.

Market days became periods of truce

Arabs lived at the margins of an international caravan trade route
Social institutions of Arabia in the early 7th century
Qabila/tribe; clan

Clan; divided into many nuclear families (tents)

Clan and the tribe were the focus of the Bedouin's ultimate loyalty

It is important to be a member of a tribe to be protected against hostile outsiders

Social solidarity
Political institutions of pre-islamic arabia?
Tribal autonomy
Tribes can form alliances through confederations

Internal dynamics: a form of "tribal democracy" with a council or majils composed of elected tribal elders who elect a spokesman or shaykh
List some European scholars of Hadith
Ignaz Goldziher is the best known of these turn-of-the-century critics, who also included D. S. Margoliuth, Henri Lammens, and Leone Caetani.

Modern Western scholarship has seriously questioned the historicity and authenticity of the hadith", maintaining that "the bulk of traditions attributed to the Prophet Muhammad were actually written much later
five pillars of faith
1. Shahada

The duty to recite the creed:
"There is nothing worthy of worship save Allah,
and Muhammad is the Messenger of God"

2. Salat

The duty to worship the One God
in prayer five times each day


The duty to give away alms and to help the needy

4. Siyam

The duty to keep the Fast of Ramadan


The duty to make the pilgrimage to Mecca
at least once in a lifetime
The relationship between the Hadith and the Sunna
The Sunnah is the manner or deeds of Muhammad and validated by the consensus of companions of Muhammad (Sahaba) in Sunni Islam, and the way or deeds of Muhammad and the twelve Imams in Shi'a Islam, while hadith is a collection of the narrations and approvals
the Five obligatory prayers
Daybreak (fajir) 2 ra'kas
Midday (zuhr) 4 ra'kas
Afternoon ('asr) 4 ra'kas
Sunset (maghrib) 3 ra'kas
Evening ('isha) 4 ra'kas