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47 Cards in this Set

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Describe Pierce's disease.
A bacterial disease commonly transmitted by the glassy-winged sharpshooter. Renders vines incapable of producing chlorophyll. Kills vines in 1-5 years. No cure or control.
Describe Leafroll.
A condition caused by a complex of at least 9 different viruses. Responsible for up to 60% of the world's grape losses. Reduced yields, delayed ripening. Spread through propagation of infected vines or insect vectors. Incurable, but does not kill vines.
Describe Fanleaf.
A "nepovirus" spread by soil nematodes feeding on infected roots, curtails yields. Deforms shoot growth, poor fruit set, seedless berries, malformed "fan" shaped leaves. Hurts vine's lifespan and winter durability.
Describe Bunch Rot.
A grouping of similar diseases caused by several fungi species. Reduced crop yields and imbue wine with moldy off-flavors. Includes "grey rot," the malevolent form of noble rot.
Describe Oidium (Powdery Mildew).
A fungal disease native to North America. Thrives in humid yet dry conditions--rainfall is a detriment to its survival. Affects green parts of the plant. Inhibits bunch development, ripening. Controlled by sulfur and fungicides.
Describe Peronospora (Downy Mildew).
A fungal disease native to North America. Attacks the green parts of the vine, causes leaves to drop off, limits photosynthesis. Arid regions prohibit growth. Fungus survives winter on fallen leaves in the soil. Controlled by Bordeaux Mixture (copper sulfate, water, lime).
Describe the Guyot system.
Cane pruning, head training. One spur, one main 2-year old cane. Vertical trellis on which the canes are suspended. (Double Guyot has 2 main canes extending from the trunk.)
Describe the Gobelet system.
Each year's fruiting canes extend from the spur-pruned arms atop the trunk, resembling a goblet in shape. AKA bush vines.
Describe the Cordon de Royat system.
Spur pruned, cordon trained. Similar to Guyot, but with a single spur-pruned permanent cordon extended horizontally from the trunk rather than a cane.
Describe the Tendone system.
Known as pergola in Italy and enforcado in Portugal. Vines are trained upward and overhead along wooden frames or trees. Tendone vines may be spur or cane pruned.
What is chaptalization?
The addition of sugar to must to increase final alcohol and glycerin content of wine. Often used in Old World, milder climates.
What is acidification?
The addition of acid to must or finished wine. Tartaric and malic may be used. Tartaric, added prior to fermentation, is preferred.
What is carbonic maceration?
Alcoholic fermentation in which whole grapes in an anaerobic environment initiate intracellular fermentation, without the action of yeasts.
What is malolactic fermentation?
AKA secondary fermentation. Bacteria convert harsh malic acid into softer lactic acid and CO2. May be initiated by inoculation or may occur naturally. Diacetyl is a byproduct, and responsible for buttery aromas.
What is pigeage?
A method of submerging and breaking up the cap of fermenting grapes by "punching down." May be performed manually or mechanically.
What is remontage?
A method of cap management in which the fermenting wine is pumped over the top. Agitates and aerates the wine to a greater degree than pigeage.
What is delestage?
A cap management method which allows the winemaker to fully drain the fermentation vessel by racking it into a separate vessel, then pump it back over the cap in the fermentation vessel.
What is vin de goutte?
High quality, free-run wine drawn from the tank immediately after fermentation and any post-fermentation maceration.
What is vin de presse?
After vin de goutte, the coarser, more tannic press wine taken from the remaining pomace.
What is elevage?
The maturation period of a wine after fermentation and pressing
What is racking, or soutirage?
Movement of wine from one vessel to another, providing aeration and clarification as the wine is removed from its lees.
What is collage?
Using a fining agent to precipitate solids out of a wine. Bentonite, casein, isinglass, gelatin, egg white are commonly used.
Why are cap management methods not an issue for white wines?
White grapes are pressed prior to fermentation, leaving no solids to deal with.
What is cold stabilization?
A process that causes tartrate crystals to precipitate out of the wine at a temp of about 25 F.
What is batonnage?
The stirring up of lees to initiate contact with the wine
What is saignage?
A portion of juice is bled from macerating red grapes once the juice has developed appropriate color.
Traditionally, what are the differences between American oak barrels and French oak barrels?
American oak species are wider grained; French oak has a tight grain developed through slow growth. French oak is split rather than sawn, preventing leakage. French oak is air-dried while American is kiln-dried, resulting in less agressive tannins and flavors in French oak.
Describe alluvial soil.
Combination of clay, silt, sand and gravel that forms over time from deposits left by running water.
Describe calcareous soil.
Primarily composed of calcium carbonate and high in chalk or limestone, as well as fossilized shells.
Describe granitic soil.
Hard granular rock with a high content of crystals, particularly quartz.
Describe Jory.
Volcanic soil composed mainly of basalt, a hard dense soil that often has a glassy appearance.
Describe limestone or chalk.
Soft soil made primarily from fossilized seashells.
Describe loam.
A crumbly mixture of clay, sand and silt.
Describe marl.
Crumbly mixture of different clays as well as calcium and magnesium carbonates and fossilized shells.
Describe sandstone.
Combination of silica and sand compacted together by pressure and time.
Describe schist.
Metamorphic rock derived mostly from clay, but can be made from several other rocks. A soft rock that flakes and breaks easily.
Describe shale.
Layers of clay-like, fine-grained sedimentary rock. Breaks down and often forms beds of sharp fragments.
Describe tufa.
A mix of silica, calcium carbonate, and sometimes volcanic ash that has been deposited over time by water.
Describe tuffeau.
Low-density marine sedimentary rock. Found in the Loire Valley.
Describe slate.
Metamorphic plate-like rock formed when shale, clay, or siltstone is subjected to pressure.
Describe Terra Rosa.
Sedimentary, well-draining soil formed after carbonates have been leached from limestone.
Describe Silex.
Flint and sand-based soil formed from a mixture of clay, limestone and silica.
Describe silt.
Fine grain deposits, offers good water retention but poor drainage.
Describe siliceous soil.
Composed of acid rock, crystalline in nature. Good heat retention, poor water retiontion.
Describe loess.
Very fine, silt-based soil composed of wind-borne sediment.
Describe gravel.
Loose siliceous pebbles with good drainage but poor fertility.
Describe flint.
Siliceous stone. Reflects and retains heat.