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331 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Pays Nantais
(Basics)
Loire Valley
Maritime Climate
Soils: Gravel, Sand and Clay over Granite
Grapes: Melon de Borgogne (Muscadet), Folle Blanche (Gros Plant), Gamay, Cabernet Franc
Auxey-Duresses
Cote de Beaune
Last of the 'red' villages
Nine 1er Crus, typically soft and fleshy
Chablis
(Soil)
Part of the Paris Basin
Kimmeridgean limestone
Portlandian limestone
Pommard
Cote de Beaune
Reds only- similar to Cote de Nuits.
known for big robust richness.
Neighboring Volnay.
Saumur-Champigny AC
Loire, Anjou-Saumur
Reds from Cabernet Franc
One of the best red AC in the Loire
"Cloning"
"A vegitative propagation of a single parent plant"
"Grafting"
"Joining the scion of one plant with the rootstock of another"
Canopy Management
General term for the management of the green parts of the vine
Includes: pruning, triming, training, trellising
Savigny
Cote de Beaune
Increasingly popular area for light, fresh reds
Several good 1er Crus
Chateau Langoa-Barton
1855
3rd Cru
St.Julien
Chateau Desmirail
1855
3rd Cru
Margaux
Gevery-Chambertin
Cote de Nuits
Largest commune with the most Grand Crus (9 in all)
Grand Cru wines are commonly big, bretty and full
Also, 26 1er Cru
Chateau Dauzac
1855
5th Cru
Margaux (Labarde)
Chateau Lynch-Moussas
1855
5th Cru
Pauillac
Nuits-St.-George
Cote de Nuits
Large and variable area
37 1er Crus, no Grand Crus
North=More smooth
South=More rustic
Quincy AC
Loire, Central Vineyards
White wines only, rustic and straight forward
The Maconnais
(Basics)
Burgundy (south of Cote Chalonnais, north of Beaujolais)
Mostly whites, some red from Gamay (some Piont Noir can be blended in)
Good value
Pernand-Vergelesses
Cote de Beaune
Amazing (in my opinon) reds- earthy and powerful
Quality 1er Crus
Cremant de Limoux AC
Languedoc
Tranditional method sparkling
Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay, some Pinot Noir allowed
"Climate"
"Series of longtime averages of temprature, precipitation, winds, sunlight"
Coteaux Varois AC
Provence
Red, white, rose
Corbiers AC
Languedoc
Huge land area- 4th largest AC in France
Mostly rustic reds, some carbonic maceration
11 seperate zones
Volnay
Cote de Beaune
35 1er Crus here
Mostly red
Feminine, perfumed, delicate, pretty wines
Vouvray AC
Loire, Touraine
Whites from Chenin Blanc
Soil: clay and sand over Tuffeau
Variable Quality
Sugar Levels: Sec, Demi Sec, Moelleux, Liquoreux
Collioure AC
Rouisillon
Dry counterpart to Banyuls
Grenache and Mourvedre based reds and rose
Can be ripe, spicy
Aloxe-Corton
Cote de Beaune
3 Grand Crus here
Marsannay
Cote de Nuits
Suburb of Dijon
Minor production dominated by reds
Reds tend to be modest, food friendly, light reds for early drinking
Whites are crisp and similar to Chablis
Patrimonio AC
Corsica
Limestone and clay soils
90% "Niellucio" (Sanviovese)
24 Producers
Muscadet Cotes de Grand Lieu AC
Loire, Pays Nantais
100% Melon de Bourgogne
On the hills surrounding Grandlieu lake
Ajaccio AC
Corsica
Hillside vineyards
Granite soils
Blending with Cinsault, Grenache, Carignan, Alicante
St.Verand AC
Maconnais (by Pouilly-Fuisse, similar in style and quality)
St.-Romain
Cote de Beaune
Though more red than white, considered to be the transitional village as you move south.
Vougeot
Cote de Nuits
Troublesome... small on it's own but with 1 HUGE Grand Cru (Clos de Vougeot) that occupies 80% of the commune
Establised by the Cistercian monks
Bourgueil AC
Loire, Touraine
Reds from Cabernet Franc
Soil: mostly gravel, some Tuffeau
High quality!
Cotes du Roussillon AC
Roussillon
Cheap and cheerful reds, whites and rose
Central Vineyards
(Basics)
Loire
Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir rule here
Soil: chalky, stoney, marine fossil
Continental climate
Chablis
(Vine training)
Trained low, 4 cordons per trunk
Jura
(Grapes)
Whites: Savagnin, Chardonnay
Reds: Poulsard ("Ploussard"), Trousseau, Piont Noir
Cotes du Roussillon Villages AC
Roussillon
Reds from 25 villages
Cotes de Jura AC
Jura
Varietal & blends from Savagnin, Chardonnay, Trousseau, Pinot Noir
Mostly whites
Also Vin de Paille and some Cremant
Biodynamic Viticulture
"Similar to organic, but also sees each vineyard as a compleate, self-sustaining ecosystem ruled by cosmic forces."
Rudolph Steiner is considered to be the father of modern biodynamics
Fitou AC
Languedoc
Reds only
Split into 2 parts: Fitou Maritime (costal), Fitou Montagneaux (inland, higher quality)
Givery AC
Cote Chalonnais
Simple, Straight forward whites
Coteaux du Loir AC
Touraine
Dry whites from Chenin Blanc
Some reds and rose as well
Touraine
(Basics)
Loire
Wide range of wines
Continental climate
Whites in the east, reds in the west
Grapes: Chenin Blanc, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon
Ladoix
Cote de Beaune
Similar to neighboring Pernand-Vergelesse. Big, powerful, earthy reds
Quercus Sessilis
Tight grained French brown oak
Includes trees from Troncais, Allier, Voges, Nevers forests... these are not solitary trees.
4x richer in aromatic compounds
"Coulure"
"Poor friut set"
Provance
(Grapes)
Grenache and Carignan are the back bone of most red and rose
Mourverde and Syrah are very important in some AC
Cabernet Sauvignon is starting to replace Carignan
Also: Semillon, Rolle (Vermentino), Clairette, Ugni Blanc (Trebbiano)
Bouzeron AC
Cote Chalonnais
Whites from Aligote with up to 15% Chardonnay
The original white wine used to make the Kir
Common region to see on tests...
Maconnaise
(Soil)
Diverse!
Limestone down in the southern, higher quality areas
Reuilly AC
Loire, Central Vineyards
Red, white, rose
Pierce's Disease
Bacterial disease
Dehydrates the vine, killing it within 1-5 years
Spread by the Glassy-winged Sharpshooter
"Rendement Annuel"
Annual yield allowed after adjustments based on environmental factors
Adjustment of the original "Rendement de Base"
Graves
(Basics)
District to the south of the city of Bordeaux
Stylisticly diverse, physically large
Reds, whites, sweet whites
North=Red and white
South=Sweet white
Languedoc-Roussillon
(Viticulture)
Mediterranean climate makes organic viticulture easy
Gobelet training to protect grapes from sun burn
Later harvesting- "let it hang"
Mechanical harvesting is common
Many Co Ops
"Sur Lie"
(Regulations)
Loire, Pays Nantais
Can only be applied to Coteaux de la Loire, Cotes de Grandlieu, Sevre-et-Mane
Wines must be in contact with lees through winter, and be bottled directly off of the fine lees between the 3rd week of March and November 30th the year after crushing
No filtering allowed
Chateau Montrose
1855
3rd Cru
St.Estephe
Beaujolais
(Soil)
Acidic Granite
"Arene" (sandy) in good areas
Clay and sand in poorer areas
Burgundy
(Grapes)
Pinot Noir
Chardonnay
Gamay
Aligote
Pinot Blanc
Pinot Beurot (Gris)
Cesar
Tresscot
Sacy
Melon
Sauvignon Blanc
"Parenospera"
"Downy Mildew"
Chateau Malescot-St-Exupery
1855
3rd Cru
Margaux
Chateau Clerc-Milon
1855
5th Cru
Pauillac
Chateau Beychevelle
1855
4th Cru
St.Julien
Saumur AC
Loire, Anjou-Saumer
Chenin Blanc for whites
Cabernet Franc and Cabernet Sauvignon for reds ("Beaujolais of the Loire")
St.-Aubin
Cote de Beaune
Poor man's Mersault!
Chateau Lafon Rochet
1855
4th Cru
St.Estephe
Organic Viticulture
"An approach to viticulture which attempts to make noe use of synthetic compounds to enhance yields or improve soil quality or to fight weather or pest related problems."
"Declaration de Recolte"
"Decleration of Harvest"
forces producers to declaire their weight of harvested fruit each year, and how much is in reserve
Chateau Leoville-Poyferre
1855
2nd Cru
St.Julien
Monthelie
Cote de Beaune
"Little Volnay"- similar in style
Feminine, delicate, pretty reds
"Silex"
Sancerre soil type
Flint over Kimmeridgian Limestone
Pouilly-Fume AC
Loire, Central Vineyards
Whites from Sauvignon Blanc only
Soil similar to Sancerre with more clay
Grapes grown on Silex make smokey wines
Didier Dagueneau
Chateau d'Armaihaq
1855
5th Cru
Pauillac
Rully
Cote Chalonnaise
Mainly whites, uaually fruity and simple
1er Crus have more structure and depth
Chateau Rauzan-Segla
1855
2nd Cru
Margaux
Chateau Croizet-Bages
1855
5th Cru
Pauillac
Chateau Pichon-Longueville Baron
1855
2nd Cru
Pauillac
Cremant de la Loire AC
Loire Valley general AC
Very important in Anjou-Saumur
Traditional method
Chateau Haut-Bages-Liberal
1855
5th Cru
Pauillac
Cahteau Marquis de Terme
1855
4th Cru
Margaux
"Hybrids"
"A cross that marries 2 differnt species of vine"
Banned in Europe for commercial use
Chateau Kirwan
1855
3rd Cru
Margaux(Cantenac)
Vin de Savoie AC
Savoie
Mostly white, some red and rose
Several grapes allowed, whites based on Jacquere
15 villages can attach their names, most important: Abymes, Apremont, Chignin
Crepy AC
Saoive
Light bodied whites from Chasselas
Chateau Grand-Puy-Lacoste
1855
5th Cru
Pauillac
Chateau Durfort-Vivens
1855
2nd Cru
Margaux
Chateau Lafite
1855
1er Cru
Pauillac
Seyssel AC
Savoie
Whites and Fizz from "Altesse" (Rousette)
"Cot"
"Malbec"
(Loire)
Chateau Brane-Cantenac
1855
3rd Cru
Margaux (Cantenac)
Roussette de Savoie AC
Savoie
Whites from "Altesse" (Roussette), blended with Chardonnay
Bordeaux
(Climate)
Maritime climate
Moderated by rivers
Rainshadow effect from the Landes forest for the left bank
"Caillottes"
Sancerre soil type
Rubbly Kimmeridgian Limestone
Limoux AC
Languedoc
Merlot based reds
"Pruning"
The removal of parts of the vine, mostly done during dormancy
Reasons for pruning?
1.Yield control
2.Balancing fruit vs. vegetative growth
3.Set up for training system
Blanquette de Limoux AC
Languedoc
Traditional method sparkling
Minimum of 90% Mauzac with some Chardonnay and Chenin Blanc
"Sur Maturite"
"Over ripe"
(Bordeaux)
Quercus Robur
French brown oak
tighter grains than American oak
More, but finer, tannins
Staves are split
Bordeaux
(Geography)
Dominated by rivers: Dordogne, Gironde, Garonne
Landes forest
Costal Dunes
Most of the land is flat or subtly slopping
Chateau Leoville-Barton
1855
2nd Cru
St.Julien
Chateau Marquis d'Alesme Becker
1855
3rd Cru
Margaux
Chateau Lascombes
1855
2nd Cru
Margaux
Bordeaux
(Grapes)
White: Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Muscadelle, Ugni Blanc, Merlot Blanc, Colombard
Reds: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec, Petit Verdot, Carmenere
Medoc
(Soil)
Gravel mounds, clay
"Calcaires a Asteries"=Limestone subsoil
Chateau Chalon AC
Jura
Vin Jaune only
Can mature 100 years
Such strict regulations that in some years no wine is made
Ballet AC
Provance
Wines from Braquet (Brachetto), Folle Noir (Fuella), Rolle (Vermintino)
Excellent whites
Mazoyeres-Chambertin
Cote de Nuits
Gevery-Chambertin
North to South= #9
Latricieres-Chambertin
Cote de Nuits
Gevery-Chambertin
North to South= #8
Chames-Chambertin
Cote de Nuits
Gevery-Chambertin
North to South= #7
Le Chambertin
Cote de Nuits
Gevery-Chambertin
North to South= #6
Griottes-Chambertin
Cote de Niuts
Gevery-Chambertin
North to South= #5
Chapelle-Chambertin
Cote de Nuits
Gevery-Chambertin
North to South= #4
Chambertin Clos-de-Beze
Cote de Nuits
Gevery-Chambertin
North to South= #3
Ruchottes-Chambertin
Cote de Nuits
Gevery-Chambertin
North to South= #2
Mazis-Chambertin
Cote de Nuits
Gevery-Chambertin
North to South= #1
Quercus Alba
American oak!
Fast growing, wide grained
Pungent Aromats
Cooperage practices contribute to coconut charcter
Sawn staves- releases more aromatic substances, like vanillin
Cote du Luberon AC
Provance/S.Rhone(kinda)
Reds from Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre, Mourvedre, Cinsault
WHites from Grenach Blanc, CLairette, Bourblanc
Pessac-Leognan
(Bacics)
Around the city of Bordeaux, honors the 2 best communes of nothern Graves
75% red (from Cabernet Sauvignon) but most famous for white blends
Blanquette Methode Ancestral AC
Languedoc
100% Mauzac
Slightly sweet, lightly sparkling style
Listrac
(Basics)
Haut-Medoc
Small are north of Moulis
Less finesse, but more power (similar to Pauillac)
Cabernet Sauvignon heavy
Moulis
(Basics)
Haut-Medoc
Small area south of Listrac, northeast of Margaux
Raised plateau of gravelly soil
Several good Cru Bourgeois
"Eutypa Dieback"
"Dead Arm"
Bacterial/Fungal Disease
Morey-St.-Denis
Cote de Nuits
5 Grand Crus, can be outstanding
10 1er Crus
Mostly reds, small amount of white
"Terres Blanches"
Soil type of Sancerre
Clay topsoil with Kimmeridgian Limestone subsoils
Chassagne-Montrachet
Cote de Beaune
3 Grand Crus
52 1er Crus
Fantastic whites, up and coming area for red also
Puligny-Montrachet
Cote de Beaune
4 Grand Crus
23 1er Crus
Stoney limestone soils
Rich, concentrated, powerful agable whites
Coteaux du Layon AC
Loire, Anjou-Saumur
Large area
Sweet whites from "Pineau de la Loire" (Chenin Blanc)
Bonnezeaux=Cru
Pallet AC
Provance
20 different grapes allowed
Red, white, rose
Chateau Simone occupies 3/4 of AC
Chinon AC
Loire, Tourine
reds from Cabernet Franc- some of the best in the Loire
Chalky, Limestone soils with some gravel
Some rose and white (Chenin Blanc)
Vienne River
Life of the Vine
Dormancy
Bud Break
Flowering
Fruit set
Verasion
Harvest
Sancerre AC
Loire, Central Vineyards
Soil: Limestone, chalky, marine fossil
Whites from Sauvignon Blanc
Reds and roses from Pinot Noir
Jasnieres AC
Loire, Touraine
Dry whites from Chenin Blanc
Located on the Loir river... like with no -e...
Cote de-Nuits-Village AC
Cote de Nuits
Villages of Fixin and Brochon in the north, Comblanchien, Corgoloin and Prissey in the south
"Breton"
"Cabernet Franc"
(Loire)
Mercury AC
Cote Chalonnais
Best known for reds and small amounts of white
Reds are firm and full bodied, age 4-8 years
Muscadet des Coteaux de la Loire AC
Loire, Pays Nantais
100% Melon de Bourgogne
Farthest north AC on the French coast
Chateau Talbot
1855
4th Cru
St.Julien
Chateau Pontet-Canet
1855
5th Cru
Pauillac
Chateau Boyd-Cantenac
1855
3rd Cru
Margaux (Cantenac)
Chateau Calon-Segur
1855
3rd Cru
St.Estephe
Chateau Lynch-Bages
1855
5th Cru
Pauillac
Chateau Belgrave
1855
5th Cru
Haut-Medoc (St.Laurent)
Chateau Mouton-Rothschild
1855
1er Cru
Paulliac

*only change to 1855 classification... promoted to 1er Cru in 1973
Chateau Rauxan-Gassies
1855
2nd Cru
Margaux
Chateau Ducru-Beaucaillou
1855
2nd Cru
St.Julien
Savoie
(Grapes)
Often seen on the lable
Reds:Mondeuse, Pinot Noir
Whites: Jacquere, Altesse ("Rousette"), Mondeuse Blanc, Chardonnay, Aligote, Chasselas
Chateau Prieure-Lichine
1855
4th Cru
Margaux (Cantenac)
Beaujolais
(Basics)
Burgundy, South of the Maconnais
Gamay Noir is King... small amount of white
Beaujolais Nouveau=Carbonic Maceration=2/3 of all production=Shit...
Chateau Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande
1855
2nd Cru
Pauillac
Chateau Duhart-Milon-Rothschild
1855
4th Cru
Pauillac
Menatou-Salon AC
Loire, Central Vineyards
Soils: high limestone content
Whites from Suvignon Blanc
Reliable alterantive to Sancerre and Pouilly-Fume
Some red and rose from Pinot Noir
Margaux
(Basics)
Haut-Medoc
Best commune for over all quality
Largest commune (made up of 5 smaller communes)
25 classified growths from 1855 classification
Chateau Haut-Batailley
1855
5th Cru
Pauillac
Chateau la Tour-Carnet
1855
5th Cru
Haut-Medoc (St.Laurent)
Chateau Latour
1855
1er Cru
Pauillac
Chateau Batailley
1855
5th Cru
Pauillac
Chateau Ferriere
1855
3rd Cru
Margaux
Chateau Palmer
1855
3rd Cru
Margaux (Cantenac)
Chateau Leoville-Las-Cases
1855
2nd Cru
St.Julien
Cote Chalonnais
(Soil)
Limestone, similar to Cote d'Or
Chateau d'Issan
1855
3rd Cru
Margaux (Cantenac)
Chateau Giscours
1855
3rd Cru
Margaux (Labarde)
Cassis AC
Provence
Red, white, rose
Limestone soils
Mostly known for whites from Ugni Blanc, Clairette, Marsanne, Sauvignon Blanc (said to be the ultimate pairing with Bouillabaise)
Chateau Lagune
1855
3rd Cru
Haut-Medoc (Ludon)
Coulee de Serrant AC
Loire, Anjou-Saumur
Cru Savenniers
Soil:slate and schist
Originally planted by Cistertians in 1130
Monople! Owned by the Joly family since 1960's
Biodynamic- Nicolas Joly
Chateau Cantenac-Brown
1855
3rd Cru
Margaux (Cantenac)
Cote de Provence AC
Provence
Largest AC in the area
Famous for reds
Rose accounts for 80% of production
Cabernet Suvignon is now being used to give structure to reds
Only Cru Classe outside of Bordeaux- 23 estates classified in 1955
Graves
(Soil)
Gravel, clat
"Calacaires a asteries" (limestone) subsoils
Excellent drainage and warmth
Chateau Cos d'Estournel
1855
2nd Cru
St.Estephe
Sauternes
(Soils)
Gravel, thick sand and clay
(sometimes needs tilling)
Chateau Camensac
1855
5th Cru
Haut-Medoc (St.Laurent)
Right Bank
(Soils)
Clay, sand, limestone
Lime stone plateau
"Graves et Sabels Anciens"
"Sable Anciens"
Pomerol
(Soils)
Gravel, sand, clay, iron rich sandstone
"Crasse Fare"=ironpan
Bordeaux
(Viticulture)
High density planting (Reduce yield)
Guyot training (less cutting,less disease)
Low training (heat retention)
Some mechanical harvesting, hand harvesting for top chateaux
"Pineau de la Loire"
"Chenin Blanc"
(Loire)
Savenniers AC
Loire, Anjou-Saumur
Dry whites from Chenin Blanc
Long-lived and nervey... problems in youth (tastes old when it's young, young and fresh when it's old)
Sandstone slopes
2 Crus here: Coulee de Serrant, La Roche Aux Moines
Chateau Grand-Puy-Ducasse
1855
5th Cru
Pauillac
Chateau Branaire-Ducru
1855
4th Cru
St.Julien
"Tuffeau"
Famous Loire soil type
Soft yellow/white limestone, volcanicly boiled, chalky
Calcium Carbonite mingled with iron and mangnesium oxides
Pouilly-Fuisse AC
Maconnais
Finest AC in the region
No 1er Cru, but specific Climats that may be used on the lable
Styles may vary- possible MLF, wood
Discovery of Phylloxera
Brought to Europe from North American vines (vitis labrusca) that were used as ornimentals
Discovered in the Languedoc and Souithern Rhone in 1868, thought to have started effecting vines in 1863
Chateau Lagrange
1855
3rd Cru
St.Julien
Haut-Medoc
(Communes)
North to South:
1.St.Estephe
2.Pauillac
3.St.Julien
4.Listrac
5.Moulis
6.Margaux
"Cascade System"
Loop hole!
Allowed a maximum ammount of wine to be made under a certain AC by a producer, but not a maximum yield so remaining fruit could be used to make table wines/wine in a lower AC
Abolished in 1974
Bas Medoc
(Basics)
Formerly known as "Bas-Medoc"
Heavier soils than the Haut-Medoc
Merlot is important here, Cabernet Sauvignon can have trouble ripening
Co-Ops and Cru Bourgeois are important (no classified growths)
Burgundy
(Vinification, Reds)
Crush and cold soak (must heating)
Open fermenters
Natural yeast ("Pied de Cuvee")
"Pigeage" (Punch down)
Chapitalization and other corrections
Maturation
Finishing (mobile lines vs. estate)
"R.D.I."
"Regulated Deficit Irrigation"
Theory of watering at the right times during growth cycle of the vine to increase quality
Arbois AC
Jura
Largest and best known AC in the region
13 communes
Pupillin= Cru that can add it's name to the AC
70% red, 30% white- also Vin Janue and Vin de Paille

*Louis Pasture's home town!
Chateau St.Pierre
1855
4th Cru
St.Julien
Muscadet AC
Loire, Pays Nantais
100% Melon de Bourgogne
Boring. Should be cheap- drink it young...
St.Estephe
(Basics)
Least familiar/celebrated of Haut-Medoc communes
5 classified growths
SLow to mature, course, rustic, brawny
Late bloomers, need time in bottle
Can be outstanding in hot, dry years when other communes deal with over ripeness
Moving toward more Melot and less Cabernet Sauvignon
"Groulleau"
Loire
aka "Gros Plant"
High yield, thin, tannic wines
Mostly found in Anjou-Saumur, vine-pull scheme to replace with higher quality grapes
Most used in rose production
"P.L.C."
"Palfond Limite de Classement"
Additinoal yield allowed (in addition to Rendement de Base) in exceptional vintages
Risky!
Produced will normally still claim the Rendement de Base yield...
Mersault
(Basics)
Cote de Beaune
Large area!
One of the most successful communes in Burgundy
No Grand Crus, 29 1er Crus
More than 100 Domain bottlers, with 1.5 million bottels produced annually
Style is forward, blowsey, yeasty, spicy
Chambolle-Musigny
(Basics)
Cote de Nuits
Small- less than 200ha under vine
2 Grand Crus, 1 (Bonnes Mares) shared with Morey-St.-Denis
More delicate and fiminine than most communes to the north
Can be outstanding, intense, perfumed, floral, textural, delicate wines
"Feuillette"
114-132 liter oak barrel used in Chablis
Subregions of the Loire
West to East
1.Pays Nantais
2.Anjou-Saumur
3.Touraine
4.Central Vineyards
Anjou-Saumur
(Basics)
Loire
Climate: Maritime
Soils: Limestone and chalk ("Tuffeau")
Grapes: "Pineau de la Loire" (Chenin Blanc), "Breton" (Cabernet Franc), Gamay, "Grolleau" (Gros Plant), "Cot" (Malbec)
St.Nicolas-de-Bourgueil AC
Loire, Touraine
Reds from Cabernet Franc
High quality
Small amounts of rose
Soil: Mostly gravel, some Tuffeau
l'Etouile AC
Jura
Named for the star-shaped fossils in the soil, and for the 5 hills that surround the small area (form a star!)
Best known for Chardonnay based whites
Also- Vin Jaune, Vin de Paille, some Mousseaux
Coteaux du Languedoc AC
Languedoc
Wines can be labled simply as AC, or can attatch the name of 16 approved villages (ex. Pic Saint-Loup)
Reds, whites, rose
Burgundy
(Vinification, whites)
1.Pressing
2.Fermentation (controled)
3.Contact with lees
4.Batonnage
5.Chapitalization
6.Maturation
Cheverny AC
Loire, Touraine
Red, white, rose

* Not to be confussed with Coeur-Cheverny AC (they love this on tests I guess...)
"Millerandage"
Uneven ripening, abmormal fruit set
Can be caused by cold weather
Chateau Haut-Brion
1855
1er Cru
Graves (Pessac-Leognan)
Montlouis AC
Loire, Touraine
Whites from Chenin Blanc
Similar to Vouvray
Saumur Mousseux AC
Loire, Anjou-Saumur
Traditional method sparkling
Going out of style, more common to see Cremant de la Loire on lables
Touraine AC
Loire, Touraine
3 areas can add their name to the AC: Touraine-Amboise, Touraine-Mesland,Touraine-Azay-le-Rideau
Whites: Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc
Reds: Cabernet Franc, Gamay
Most wines sold by varietal
"Crosses"
"Produced by fertilizing the flower of one variety with the pollen of another"
can be the result of human intervention or happen naturally
Essentially all grapes are crosses
Cote de Beaune-Village
Cote de Beaune
Reds from 14 communes from Pinot Noir
"Wine"
(The LEGAL Deffinition...)
"Exclusivly from the alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes or grape juice"
-1905
(SERIOUSLY!)
Coeur-Cheverny AC
Loire, Touraine
Whites from 100% Romorantin

*Not to be confussed with Cheverny AC
Minervois AC
Languedoc
Mostly red, variable quality
Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre, S.Rhone grapes
Similar to Corbiers, more modern style (less rustic)
Chateau Graud-Larose
1855
2nd Cru
St.Julien
Faugeres AC
Languedoc
Excellent reds, decent rose and some whites
"Vin de Paille"
Jura
"Straw Wine"
Not an AC, but a style of wine that may be produced in Arbois, l'Etoile, and Cote de Jura
Grapes have been dried on straw mats (or wicker, or just hung to dry) for atleast 6 weeks
All jura grapes are allowed except for Pinot Noir
Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provance AC
Provence
Rose, red (very good), white
Cabernet Suvignon plays a large roll
Costiers du Nimes AC
Languedoc/S.Rhone
Reds, whites, rose from Rhone grapes
Pauillac
(Basics)
Most familiar/famous commune of the Haut-Medoc
Classified growths accout for 72.5% of the land under vine here
Globale template for quality, long lived Cabernet Sauvignon
"Odium"
"Powdery Mildew"
Chateau Pouget
1855
4th Cru
Margaux (Cantenac)
Chateau Cos-Labroy
1855
5th Cru
St.Estephe
Chateau Margaux
1855
1er Cru
Margaux
Pouilly-Loche AC
Maconnais
Near Pouilly-Fuisse, similar in stlye and quality
Pouilly-Vinzelles AC
Maconnais
Near to Pouilly-Fuisse, similar in style and quality
Les Baux de Provence
Provence
85% biodynamic (soon to be 100% for AC status)
Excellent red and rose
Used to be sold as Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence Baux AC
Chateau Cantenmerle
1855
5th Cru
Haut-Medoc (Macau)
"Vin Juane"
Jura
"Yellow Wine"
Savagnin is th only grape allowed
Aged for a minimum of 6 years and 3 months in barrel, ullage, and no racking or topping
Oxidized!
Grows a flor called "Voile"
Bottled in a 62ml bottle called a "Clavelin" (refects the amount of product lost during the process of making the wine)
Bandol AC
Provence
Red, white, rose
Reds based on Mourvedre, very age worthy
Chateauneuf-du-Pape
(1920's)
Comittee led by Chateau Fortia owner Baron Le Roy De Boiseaumarie to help revive the fialing region
Much of the committe's choices for the region influenced the later creation of the French AOC system
"Rendement de Base"
Theoretical base yield (may be amended)
Usually the yield that producers claim
St.-Julien
(Basics)
Small, high quality area
Mix of Pauillac's power and the charm of Margaux
Margaux
(Communes)
North to South:
1.Soussans
2.Cantenac
3.Labarde
4.Arsac
5.Macau
Chateau du Tertre
1855
5th Cru
Margaux (Arsac)
Cote d'Or
(Soil)
Various limestones: Bathonian, Bajocian, Oolitic
Many variations!
Top soil often shallow and consisting of limestone scree, flints, pebbles, sand, clay marl
St.Chainan AC
Languedoc
Excellent reds and decent rose
Cote de Beaune
(Villages North to South)
Pernand-Verelesses
Ladoix
Savigny
Aloxe-Corton
Chorey
Pommard
Volnay
St.Romain
Monthelie
Mersault
Auxey-Duressed
St.Aubin
Puligny-Montrachet
Chassagne-Montrachet
Santenay
Maranges
Beaujolais
(Crus North to South)
St.Amour
Julienas
Chenas
Moulin-a-Vent
Flurie
Chirobles
Morgon
Reginas
Cote de Brouilly
Brouilly
St.Amour
Cru Beaujolais
North to South= #1
Julienas
Cru Beaujolais
North to South= #2
Chenas
Cru Beaujolais
North to South= #3
Moulin-A-Vent
Cru Beaujolais
North to South= #4
Flurie
Cru Beaujolais
North to South= #5
Chirobles
Cru Beaujolais
North to South= #6
Morgon
Cru Beaujolais
North to South= #7
Reginas
Cru Beaujolais
North to South= #8
Cote de Brouilly
Cur Beaujolais
North to South= #9
Brouilly
Cru Beaujolais= #10
Cote de Nuits
(Villages North to South)
Marsannay
Fixin
Gevery-Chambertin
Morey-St.-Denis
Chambolle-Musigny
Vougeot
Flagey-Echezeaux
Vosne-Romanee
Nuits-St.-George
Clos de la Roche GC
Morey-St.-Denis
North to South= #1
Clos St.-Denis GC
Morey-St.-Denis
North to South= #2
Clos de Lambrays GC
Morey-St.-Denis
North to South= #3
Clos de Tart GC
Morey-St.-Denis
North to South= #4
Bonnes-Mares GC
Shared between 2 areas:

Morey-St.-Denis(N to S= #5)
and
Chambolle-Musigny(N to S= #1)
Musigny GC
Chambolle-Musigny
North to South= #2
Clos de Vougeot GC
Vougeot
North to South= #1 (and only)
Richbourge GC
Vosne-Romanee
North to South= #1
Romanee-St.-Vivant GC
Vosne-Romanee
North to South= #2
Grands Echezeaux GC
Flagey-Echezeaux
North to South= #1
Alsace AC
Basic regional AC
Created in 1962, wines were originally supposed to be dry... 2 sweet styles were added in 1983
Accounts for 75% of today's production
Usually labled by grape variety, must be 100%
Some blended winr is produced
Bottled in the flute shaped ("Rhine") bottle
"Edelzwicker"
Alsace AC
Blended wine
"Noble Mixture"
"Gentil"
Alsace AC
Blended wine
"Nice"... theoretically a blend of noble grapes
"Fruits de Mere"
Alsace AC
Blended wine
"Mixed Seafood"
Alsace Grand Cru AC
Relativly new classification and very controversial
Established in 1975 but was first applied for in the 1983 vintage
Today there are 51 Grand Cru sites
Only 4 grapes are permitted for GC status: Gewurztraminer, Riesling, Pinot Gris, Muscat d'Alsace*
Most GC sites are not allowed to blend**
Higher minimum alc% (for Riesling and Muscat 11%, Gewurztraminer and Pinot Gris 12.5%)
More restricted yields

*Zotzenberg GC is allowed to grow Sylvaner
**Altenberg de Bergheim and Kaefferkoph are both allowed to blend
Altenberg de Bergheim
Alsace GC site
Marl limestone soils
Steep, southern aspect
Best suited for Gewurztraminer
Blending is allowable
Florimont
Alsace GC site
Excellent Riesling and Gewurztraminer
Brand
(place)
Alsace GC site
Zind-Humbrecht
Amazing Riesling in particular
Goldert
Alsace GC site
Gewurztraminer and Muscat
Mambourg
Alsace GC site
A limestone slope with calcarious clay on top
Great for Gewurztraminer and Piont Gris
Historical records show that the vineyards were famous as early as 783 when the land was owned by monks and nobles
Large GC covering 61.85 ha
Rosacker
Alsace GC site
Famous for Riesling... Trimbach's Clos Ste.Hune
Good Gewurztraminer as well
Geisberg/Osterberg
Alsace GC site
Famous for Riesling and the source of most of the fruit for Trimbach's Cuvee Frederic Emile
Sporen
Alsace GC site
Stoney, clay-marl soils
Famous for Pinot Gris and Gewurztraminer
Rangen
Alsace GC site
Steeply sloped (80%)
Volcanic soils
Considered to be one of the best Grand Crus
Steinklotz
Alsace GC site
Famous for Pinot Noir
Alsace Sweet Wines
(Rules)
Must be hand harvested with multiple passes for SGN
Single variety wines
Must meet minimum sugar levels for each catagory- no chapatlization!!!
Must be declared in advence to INAO that the wine is going to be made that vintage
Must lab analysis and tasting
Vindage Tardive
(Required Must Weights)
Riesling & Muscat: 235g/l sugar

Pinot Gris & Gewurztraminer: 257g/l sugar
Selection de Grains Nobles
(Required Must Weights)
Riesling & Muscat: 276g/l sugar

Pinot Gris & Gewurztraminer: 306 g/l sugar
Cremant de Alsace AC
Traditional method sparkling from Alsace
Increasingly important AC for the region
Alsace
(Climate)
Continental/Semi-continental
Warm and sunny with a long growing season
Not quite warm enough to ripen red grapes
Driest in the southern Haut-Rhin department
Protected by the rainshadow provided by the Voges mountains
Slightly more rain in the Bas-Rhin where the Voges are lower
Some vintages can get mists from the Rhine river which helps on the production of SGN wines
Alsace
(Geography)
Alsace sits in a depression or trench ("Graben" in German)
Best vineyards are on sloping sites at higher altitudes

3 main vineyard areas:

Sub-Vosgian hills at slightly higher altitudes

Lower slopes at lower altitudeds

Alluvial fans on the Plain d'Alsace at the bottom of the slopes
Alsace
(Soils)
Extreamly varied!
Most common quality soils are granite, limestone, schist and sandstone
Alsace
(Viti/Vini Practice)
Most grapes are trained high to protect from frost damage
Some Mechanization
Most vineyards are a mix of plantings
Cool frementation
No MLF
Large Foudres
Alsace
(Grapes)
Noble:
Riesling
Gewurztraminer
Pinot Gris
Muscat

Also:
Pinot Blanc
Auxerrois
Sylvaner
Klevener de Heiligenstein
Pinot Noir
Riesling
(Alsace)
One of the Noble Grapes
Most widely planted by a small margin
These wines are dry and full-bodied in style compared to Riesling from other parts of the world
Excellent sweet wines as well
Gewruztraminer
(Alsace)
One of the Noble Grapes
Possibly the world's finest expression of the grape
Best are rich, full-bodied, high in alcohol, low in acidity and highly aromatic
Excellent sweet wines as well
Pinot Gris
(Alsace)
One of the Noble Grapes
Due to the success of the grape in Italy, Alsace's expressions can seem slightly strange
Best are full-bodied, lowish in acidity,and highly aromatic
Very good sweet wines as well
Muscat
(Alsace)
One of the Noble Grapes
There are actually 2 different Muscats here that are usually blended together:
1.Muscat d'Alsace
2.Musact Ottonel
Very limited plantings due to climate
Dry and sweet wines
Pinot Blanc/Auxerrois
(Alsace)
Actually 2 different grapes with one name and similar flavors that are often blended together
The blend can be called "Pinot Blanc", "Pinot d'Alsace" or just "Pinot"
Light, refreshing, medium to medium high acidity and flavors of melon and peach
Very important to Cremant production
Sylvaner
(Alsace)
Importand grape for Cremant production
Fairly neutral to taste with some citrus and floral notes
Now permitted in the Grand Cru of Zotzenberg
Klevener de Heiligenstein
(Alsace)
Now a fairly trivial grape
It may nolonger be replanted and is supposed to be gone from the region by 2021
Historically important- widely planted until the 1850's when Gewurztraminer replaced it
Real name is Savagnin Rose- pink skinned Traminer grape used in white production
Only grown in eastern Alsace
Also grown in Jura
SImilar in flavor to a light Gewurztraminer
Pinot Noir
(Alsace)
Only grape permitted here for red and rose production
Only 8% of total plantings
Generally makes pale and delicate wines
Increasingly popular as it is one of the few reds that will actually ripen here
Quality is highly variable
Prices can be high
Cotes de Rhone AC
Basic appellation for the whole Rhone that accounts for about 80% of production
Almost 40,000ha of land devoted to producing these wines in 171 communes
Production is dominated by a co-ops and negociants
About 95% of these wines are red with a small amount of white and rose
Styles are highly varied
Reds are typically dominated by Grenache and supported by Cinsault, Mourvedre, Syrah and a maximum of 30% Carignan
Whites are dominated by Grenache Blanc with some Clairette, Bourbelenc, Marsanne, Roussanne, and Viogner
Cotes du Rhone-Villages AC
Rhone
Regional AC designed to recognize superior terroir with stricter production laws than those for Cotes du Rhone AC
Appellation applies to 95 communes strictly in the south
Just under 4,000ha dedicatred to the AC
Negociants and co-ops important
AC law stresses the importance of Grenach (Max 65%) with a minimum of 50%supported by Syrah, Mourvedre, Cinsault (max 25%), Carignan (max 20%)
Cotes du Rhone-Villages (+Name) AC
Rhone
Step above simply having the 'Villages' attatched...
Even better terroir has been identified in 18 communes that are allowed to attatch their names:
Rasteau, Cairanne, Chusclan, Massif d'Uchaux, Plan de Dieu, Puymeras, Roaix, Rochegude, Rousset-les-Vignes, Saint-Pantaleon, Valreas, Sablet, Saint Gervais, Saint Maurice, Seguret, Singnargues, Valreas, Visan
Northern Rhone
(Climate/Geography)
Broadly continental
Cold winters, warm to hot summers, low rainfall
Mediterranean influences show around Cornas

Often steep, terraced slopes mixed with some flat land
Aspect is of great importance
Southern Rhone
(Climate/Geography)
Mediterranean
Long, warm-hot, dry summers with mild winters

Varied landscapes as the river valley opens up- some sloping and flat land on plateaus
West bank tends to be steeper, vineyards extend to the east sub-alpine ranges
"Mistral"
Rhone
Powerful, cold wind
Can damage vines
Protects aginst molds and mildews as well as pests
"Marin"
Rhone
Moist, warm, mediterranean wind affecting the south
Rhone Valley
(Red Grapes)
Syrah
Grenache
Mourvedre
Cinsault
Couniose
Muscardin
Terret Noir
Vaccarese
Carignan
Rhone Valley
(White Grapes)
Roussanne
Marsanne
Viogner
Grenache Blanc
Bourbelenc
Clairette Blanche
Picardin
Picpoule
Northern Rhone
(Soils)
Essentially granitic- formed from weatherd bedrock
Various other top soils of clay, sand, flint, mica
All are mineral-rich and light-textured with excellent drainage
Erosion is a problem in some areas
Southern Rhone
(Soils)
More varied than N.Rhone soils...
Classic soils here are formed from large stones over sand and clay
Northern Rhone
(Viti)
Low trained bush vines or "Taille en Archet" most common
Most areas are steep and therefore resistant to mechanization (very labor intensive)
"Taille en Archet"
Northern Rhone
Vine training style designed to protct from the effects of the "Mistral"
Southern Rhone
(Viti)
Mix of hand-harvested bush vines and wire-trained mechanical harvested sites
Most of the successful international exporters use very modern techniques
Northern Rhone
(Vini, Red)
Traditional: No or only partial destalking, fermentation in open vats, extended again in seasoned wood... Opponents of this style say that it leads to a hot fermentation which burns off fruit notes, and gives the wines vegetal flavors, green tannin qualities, and 'off' aromas
Modern styles follow the the modern logic of balance between fruit and structure, new oak, and are mroe concerned about friut quality in the vineyard
Southern Rhone
(Vini, Red)
Grenache is highly susceptible to oxidation which led to maturation in large foudres
Greater care in the vineyard and the winery has resulted in the use of smaller barrels for soem producers
Northern Rhone
(Grapes Allowed...)
The only permitted red grape in the north is Syrah, though white grapes are allowed to be blended with it in some appellations...
Whites are either 100% Viogner or blends for Marsanne and Roussanne depending on appellation
Cote Rotie AC
Northern Rhone
Name means "Roasted Slopes"
Small area- 230ha
Not cheap...
Some of France's very finest Syrah-based wines
Only red is allowed to be produced under this AC, but 20% Viogner is allowed to be blended in with the Syrah
Cote Rotie AC
(Geography Basics)
Northern Rhone
Area is composed of steep granite terraces and divided into 3 broad areas:
1.Plateau Lands
2.Cote Blonde- lighter and more aromatic wines, this is where the viogner is planted
3.Cote Brune- denser and more tannic wines
Wines are often blends of the different areas, but single vineyard wines are also made

*Why Blonde and Brune? the story is that a 16th century Marquis de Maugiron had 2 daughters, one blonde and one burnette... he gave each a hill as a dowry...
Condrieu AC
Northern Rhone
Small area devoted strictly to Viogner
Located to the south of Cote Rotie on steep slopes
Soils of decomposed granite, mica, schist
Small area- 150ha
Intense, high alc %, can be matured in barrel
Chateau Grillet AC
Northern Rhone, inside of Condrieu AC
Monopole!
Strictly whites from Viogner
3.5ha of south to southeat aspect natural ampitheatre
Soils from decomposed mica, granite, schist
$$$$$$
Hermitage AC
Northern Rhone
Small area- 134ha
Makes the best Syrah in France
Production is 75% red from Syrah with up to 15% Marsanne and Roussanne
Whites are blends of Marsanne and Roussanne
Area is compossed of 3 south facing hills (a dome) on the east bank of the river
Best vineyards are midslope with gravelly, sand topsoils
Hermitage Vin de Paille AC
Northern Rhone
A historic winestyle that has been recently revived
Marsanne and Roussanne grapes are dried on straw ("Paille") mats for at least 2 months before pressing
The reulting wine is sweet and concentrated
Crozes-Hermitage AC
Northern Rhone
The largest AC in the N.Rhone
1,500ha total!
Syrah with up to 15% of Marsanne and Roussanne blended
Whites from Marsanne and Roussanne account for about 10% of production
St.Joseph AC
Northern Rhone
Large area
Often the lightest bodied reds from the N.Rhone, not very age worthy
Reds and whites from Syrah, Marsanne and Roussanne
Best wines ceom from the south of the region near to Cornas
Cornas AC
Northern Rhone
Small area- around 100ha
Mediterranean influence
Powerful, high alc% reds from 100% Syrah
"The most masculine wine in all of France"
St.Peray AC
Northern Rhone
Small- 75ha
Very focused on white wines as well as traditional method sparkling wines
Wines are mostly Roussanne and may have some Marsanne blended in as well
Chateauneuf-du-Pape AC
Southern Rhone
Large AC- over 3,000ha
Variable in quality and style
Best are dense, boozy, richly friuty wines with capacity to age
Production is dominated by red, but some white is made as well (no rose!)
Blended from 13 grapes: Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre, Cinsault, Counoise, Muscardin, Vaccarese, Terret Noir, Picpoul, Picardan, Clairette, Roussanne, Bourboulenc (No Carignan Allowed)
Soil is the famous "Galet" or "Pudding Stones"
Vacqueyras AC
Southern Rhone
New! 1990!
Large area
Dominated by co-ops, though there are some fine domains
Production is 95% red with small amounts of white and rose
Most rustic of the S.Rhone ACs
All the normal S.Rhone grapes, no Carignan allowed
Gigondas AC
Southern Rhone
AC since 1971
Identity is still developing
Powerful, rustic, savage reds with a small amount of rose
Slightly cooler mesoclimate than the rest of the S.Rhone ACs
Tavel AC
Southern Rhone
Rose only (the only stristly rose AC in France)
Typically dry and full-bodied, though sometimes more light and crisp
9 grapes permitted, dominated by Grenache (max 60%) and Cinsault (max 15%)
Lirac AC
Southern Rhone
Red, white and rose from S.Rhone grapes
Wines resemble Cotes du Rhone Villages
Vinsobres AC
Southern Rhone
Promoted from Cotes du Rhone Villages status to it's own AC in 2005
Only Grenache based red wines permitted
Beaumes-de-Venise AC
Southern Rhone
Promoted from Cotes du Rhone Villages status to it's own AC in 2005
Only Grenache based red wines permitted
Coteaux du Tricastin AC
Southern Rhone
Reds, whites and rose from the standard S.Rhone grapes
Cotes du Vivaris AC
Southern Rhone
Reds, whites and rose from the standard S.Rhone grapes
Coastieres de Nimes AC
Southern Rhone
Reds, whites and rose from the standard S.Rhone grapes
Cotes du Ventoux AC
Southern Rhone
Reds, whites and rose from the standard S.Rhone grapes
Cotes du Luberon AC
Southern Rhone
Reds, whites and rose form the standard S.Rhone grapes