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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Who were contemporaneous with the Turco-Mongol empires?
The Arabic-speaking or Arab-influenced dynasties and populations of Africa and SE Asia. The most important states were Morocco and the Malay and Sumatran sultanates of Malacca and Atjeh.
In the 15th century Morocco had fallen into crises and was threatened by Portugese expansion. How was it recovered?
From the late 15th century, the Saadian dynasty (direct descendents of Muhammad through his grandson Hasan, the dynasty ruling until mid-17th cent from Marrakesh) resuscitated the state. Following this, the Alawites ruled from Meknes and upheld Morocco.
The Saadian ruler who entered Fez in 1550 and took the title caliph and al-Mahdi. His victories and religious claims led the Ottomans to assissinate him in 1557.
Saadian military
Initially relied on Berber tribes for their principle forces but by 1600 had developed a modern army, used in 1591 to conquer the Sudanic state of Songhay on the middle Niger river south of the Sahara.
True or False: Songhay was typical of a group of small Sudanic or sub-Saharan states of the 15th century period that became at least nominally Islamic when indigenous elites converted due to Muslim merchants and ulama.
How did Islam continue to spread south of the Sudan?
In the form of trade, ulama, and sufis.
In the 16th century, what was the most dramatic manifestation of the increasing Islamic presence in W. Africa?
Jihads, which eventually condensed into a movement which strove to establish Muslim-dominated states.
What were the origins of many fo the reform movements in the 16th century in Sub-Saharan Africa?
Politics and social protests expressed in Islamic idioms.
Africans absorbed the ideology of the jihad and of a pure Islamic state when they studied in Mecca and Medina during their hajj.
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
1703-87; preached a puritanical doctrine which opposed Arabian folk Islam (including those of the sufi beliefs). Joined by Ibn Saud.
Saudi-Wahhabi alliance brief history?
In 1773 the alliance made Riyadh its capital and in 1803 it seized Mecca, 1805 Medina; pillaged and desecrated holy tombs and shrines (including Mohammad's). In 1818 it was destroyed by the Ottoman governor of Egypt, Muhammad Ali. The alliance stimulated other reformist movements, however.
With what ideologies did the Portugese and Spanish arrive in SE Asia in the 16th century? How did the Muslims respond?
1. With one like that of the Christian crusaders'.
2. They fought sporadically but stubbornly in their jihad against the Spanish, Portugese, and Dutch into the early 20th century.
In the 16th century, a S. Arabian region.
Hadrami sayyids: the diaspora of sacred merchants?
The Arabs who had established themselves as merchants in the Hadramawt along the Indian Ocean trade routes. Many as sayyids, claimed themselves to have decent from Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, through Ahmad bin Isa al-Muhajir who is said to have emigrated to the Hadramawt from Basra in the 10th century. They were a spiritual influence over the Arab tribes in the region.
Tangals and Teungku
Honorific terms in the Hadramawt denoting high religious status or achievement.
The Atjehnese
The foremost opponents of the Portugese and other European powers in the 16-17th centuries. Atjeh the centre of resisitance for all non-European traders, defending Islam in the region.
China's Muslim population now consists of what two groups?
1. The mainly Turkic tribes of Xinjiang province.
2. The Hui, descendants of converts to Islam or marriages b/w Muslims and Chinese.
How was Chinese Islam treated during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) and under the Manchus (1644-1911)?
It was allowed to prosper, first encouraged by the Ming rulers' policy of toleration.
Shah Wali Allah of Delhi
B.1703, son of Mughal legal scholar & member of the Mujaddidi Naqshbandis. After classic Perso-Islamic education in India, was a contemporary of Abd al-Wahhab. His thinking was unusual in that he emphasized the importance of ijtihad (personal reasoning) in interpreting the law in response to evolving conditions of society but was typical in that he believed traditional rulers could restore political vitality of decaying Muslim states. His early career exemplifies the degree to which pilgrimage to and education in the Jijaz linked ulama from Africa to S and SE Asia.