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27 Cards in this Set

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tawid
the Unity and Uniqueness of G-d; They believe that G-d communicated to humanity througout history via messengers and Mohammad was the last.
What are Salat, personal dhikr, and dua?
ritual prayer (by daily prostration in the direction of the Kaba; contemplative prayer; prayers of exhortation and praise.
adhan
the call to prayer; includes the takbir (allahu akbar), shahada, and "hurry to salat."
muezzin
announcer of adhan
khutba
sermon
zakat
sharing of wealth (not charity), intended in the past to help create sense of community (obligation of more wealthy to help the poor), paid to the government or religious leader. Today, there exist many different traditions.
sawm
day fast during Ramadan
Ramadan
9th month in the hijri (lunar calendar). The time of Ramadan is focused on devotion to Allah.
Muslims believe that during the month of Ramadan, Allah revealed the first verses of the Qur'an.
The importance of the Hajj to world Islam.
One of the significant strands that holds the entire Muslim world together.
Id al-Fitr
Ramadan's end, Feast of Fast Breaking
Id al-Adha
Ramadan's climax-Feast of Sacrifice; all Muslims sacrifice animals.
Year of conquering of Jerusalem
638
Year of conquering of Ctesiphon (capital of Persia)
637
Year of complete conquering of Egypt
646
Year of conquering of Cyprus
649
Dome of the Rock
Built by the Caliph Abd al-Malik in 691-92, first great building constructed after the Arab conquest. Where Muhammad is believed to have gone on his "night journey" to heaven.
Dynastic system of governance
Caliph Umar encouraged tribes to accept a system of stipends paid from the common treasury, which controlled the conquered regions. Arabs lived in garrison cities (like Basra and Kufa in Iraq). In general, the rule was dynastic, although civil war would arise over dispute of booty.
Jizya tax (tribute)
A payment in place of military service by the People of the Book.
Mawali
Converts were required to be "clients" of the Arab tribes.
The major divisions of Islam originate with the death of Muhammad but accelerated when and how?
First civil war (656-661)and during the subsequent generation.

Greatly by Umar's support (convert & leader) and close relationship with Muhammad, Abu Bakr (father in-law to Muhammad) became first caliph. Upon his death, Umar's caliphate was initialy accepted but tensions arose over the remaining politics following conquest. Trace of order fell apart with Uthman's murder in Medina by soldiers returning from Egypt and Iraq. Uthman was accused of siding with fellow Umayyad clansmen in Mecca(who had originally opposed Muhammad's message) over more pious Muslims, in spite of his reputation as a devoted convert.

Those 'pious' had more regard for Muhammad's cousin Ali as the true original caliph.

Lack of punishment to Uthman's assassins brought on a rebellion by Talha and Zubayr (closest companions to Muhammad), supported by Aisha.

Ali defeated Talha and Zubayr, but eventually decided to compromise with Muawiya, governor of Syria and kinsman of Uthman, after the Battle of Siffin.

The compromise with Muawiya provoked a rebellion by a group of Ali's militants who came to be known as the Kharijis (today leaders of Ibadism). Ali defeated them in 658 but in 661, a Khariji leader Ibn Muljam murdered him.

Ali's son Hasan made Muawiya the first Umayyad caliph.

Upon Muawiya's death (680), succession passed to his son Yazid, but Ali's younger son Hussein tried to restore caliphate to Muhammad's closer descendents.
Briefly explain the emergance of the Shia.
Yazid's soldiers massacred Hussein and some followers at Karbala in 680. Some of Ali's supporters in Iraq consequently became the Shia, the "partisans' of Ali.
Dynastic system of governance
Caliph Umar encouraged tribes to accept a system of stipends paid from the common treasury, which controlled the conquered regions. Arabs lived in garrison cities (like Basra and Kufa in Iraq). In general, the rule was dynastic, although civil war would arise over dispute of booty.
Jizya tax (tribute)
A payment in place of military service by the People of the Book.
Mawali
Converts were required to be "clients" of the Arab tribes.
The major divisions of Islam originate with the death of Muhammad but accelerated when and how?
First civil war (656-661)and during the subsequent generation.

Greatly by Umar's support (convert & leader) and close relationship with Muhammad, Abu Bakr (father in-law to Muhammad) became first caliph. Upon his death, Umar's caliphate was initialy accepted but tensions arose over the remaining politics following conquest. Trace of order fell apart with Uthman's murder in Medina by soldiers returning from Egypt and Iraq. Uthman was accused of siding with fellow Umayyad clansmen in Mecca(who had originally opposed Muhammad's message) over more pious Muslims, in spite of his reputation as a devoted convert.

Those 'pious' had more regard for Muhammad's cousin Ali as the true original caliph.

Lack of punishment to Uthman's assassins brought on a rebellion by Talha and Zubayr (closest companions to Muhammad), supported by Aisha.

Ali defeated Talha and Zubayr, but eventually decided to compromise with Muawiya, governor of Syria and kinsman of Uthman, after the Battle of Siffin.

The compromise with Muawiya provoked a rebellion by a group of Ali's militants who came to be known as the Kharijis (today leaders of Ibadism). Ali defeated them in 658 but in 661, a Khariji leader Ibn Muljam murdered him.

Ali's son Hasan made Muawiya the first Umayyad caliph.

Upon Muawiya's death (680), succession passed to his son Yazid, but Ali's younger son Hussein tried to restore caliphate to Muhammad's closer descendents.
Briefly explain the emergance of the Shia.
Yazid's soldiers massacred Hussein and some followers at Karbala in 680. Some of Ali's supporters in Iraq consequently became the Shia, the "partisans' of Ali.
Umayyad history through its provokation of the Shia development.
The first Islamic dynasty (661–750). Their reign witnessed the return to leadership roles of the pre-Islamic Arab elite, and the rejuvenation of tribal loyalties. The Banu Ummaya constituted the higher stratum of the pre-Islamic Meccan elite. Having entered into an agreement with Muhammad in 630, they succeeded in preserving their economic influence, and gradually reintegrated into the political power structure. Muawiya made Damascus the capital of the Islamic empire. His efforts concentrated on strengthening his rule by entering into a truce with the Byzantines, renewing tribal alliances and securing the succession of his son Yazid.